The Role of Water Harvesting and Supplemental Irrigation in Coping with Water Scarcity and Drought in the Dry Areas


increasingly reallocated away from agriculture and the environment.

Water scarcity and drought are among the most serious obstacles to agricultural development and a major threat to the environment in the dry areas. Agriculture in the dry areas accounts for more than 75 percent of the total consumption of water. With rapid increases in demand, water will be increasingly reallocated away from agriculture and the environment.

Despite scarcity, water continues to be misused. Mining groundwater is now a common practice, risking both water reserves and quality.

Land degradation is another challenge in the dry areas, closely associated with drought-related water shortage. Climatic variation and change, mainly as a result of human activities, are leading to depletion of the vegetation cover and loss of biophysical and economic productivity. This happens through exposure of the soil surface to wind and water erosion, and shifting sands, salinization of land, and water logging. Although these are global problems, they are especially severe in the dry areas.

Two major environments occupy the dry areas. The first is the wetter rainfed areas, where rainfall is sufficient to support economical dry farming. However, because rainfall amounts and distribution are suboptimal, drought periods often occur during one or more stages of crop growth, causing very low crop yields. Variation in rainfall amounts and distribution from 1 year to the next causes substantial fluctuations in production. This situation creates instability and negative socioeconomic impacts. The second environment is the drier environment (steppe or badia), characterized by an annual rainfall too low to support economical dry farming. Most of the dry areas lie in this zone. Small and scattered rainstorms in these regions fall on lands that are generally degraded with poor vegetative cover. Rainfall, although low, may accumulate through runoff from vast areas in a large volume of ephemeral water and largely be lost through direct evaporation or in salt sinks.

With scarcity, it is essential that available water be used at highest efficiency. Many technologies are available to improve water productivity and management of scarce water resources. Among the most promising technologies are (1) supplemental irrigation (SI) for rainfed areas and (2) rainwater harvesting for the drier environments (Oweis and Hachum 2003). Improving scarce water productivity, however, requires exploiting not only water management but also other inputs and cultural practices. This chapter addresses the concepts and potential roles of supplemental irrigation and water harvesting in improving water productivity and coping with increased scarcity, drought, and climate change in the dry areas.

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