In the dry areas, where water is most scarce, land is fragile and drought can inflict severe hardship on already poor populations. Using water most efficiently can help alleviate the problems of water scarcity and drought. Among the numerous techniques for improving water use efficiency, the most effective are supplemental irrigation and water harvesting.

Supplemental irrigation has great potential for increasing water productivity in rainfed areas. Furthermore, it can be a basis for water management strategies to alleviate the effects of drought. Reallocating water resources to rainfed crops during drought can save crops and reduce negative economic consequences in rural areas. However, to maximize the benefits of SI, other inputs and cultural practices must also be optimized. Limitations to implementing supplemental irrigation include availability of irrigation water, cost of conveyance and application, and lack of simple means of water scheduling. In many places, high profits have encouraged farmers to deplete groundwater aquifers. Appropriate policies and institutions are needed for optimal use of this practice.

Water harvesting is one of the few options available for economic agricultural development and environmental protection in the drier environments. Furthermore, it effectively combats desertification and enhances the resilience of the communities and ecosystems under drought. Success stories are numerous and technical solutions are available for most situations. The fact that farmers have not widely adopted water harvesting has been attributed to socioeconomic and policy factors, but the main reason has been lack of community participation in developing and implementing improved technologies. Property and water rights are not favorable to development of water harvesting in most of the dry areas. New policies and institutions are required to overcome this problem. It is vital that concerned communities be involved in development from the planning to the implementation phases. Applying the integrated natural resource management approach helps integrate various aspects and avoid the conflicts of water harvesting and supplemental irrigation.

Both supplemental irrigation and water harvesting are effective in the adaptation to climate change. Alleviating the impacts of dry spells on crops and increasing soil moisture storage will boost yields and water productivity and combat land degradation.

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