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Technologies for Discovery of Biomarkers

Introduction

Biomarkers are present in all parts of the body including body fluids and tissues. Most of the clinical laboratory examinations are done on body fluids such as blood and urine. Biomarkers can be detected on imaging studies or examination of body tissues. Even exhaled breath contains biomarkers. A wide range of technologies is utilized for detection of biomarkers and a number of assays are already available.

The Ideal Biomarker

From a practical point of view, the biomarker would specifically and sensitively reflect a disease state that could be used for diagnosis as well as for disease monitoring during and following therapy. Characteristics of an ideal biomarker are:

  • • According to the FDA, an ideal biomarker must be specifically associated with a particular disease or disease state and be able to differentiate between similar physiological conditions.
  • • It would be desirable if standard biological sources, such as serum and urine, could be used for identifying biomarkers.
  • • A rapid, simple, accurate and inexpensive detection of the relevant marker should be available, together with a measurable and standard baseline as a reference point.

An ideal biomarker should have a predictable expression level: this would demonstrate a clear association between measurable states and potential conditions.

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

K.K. Jain, The Handbook of Biomarkers, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-7431-3_2

 
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