Biomarkers for Prediction of All-Cause Mortality

NMR spectroscopy of plasma samples from a random subset of the Estonian Biobank revealed that 4 biomarkers in the blood - alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, VLDL particle size, and citrate - can be used to assess whether otherwise healthy people are at short-term risk of dying from heart disease, cancer, and other illnesses (Fischer et al. 2014). The biomarker profiling improved prediction of the short-term risk of death from all causes above established risk factors. Further investigations are needed to clarify the biological mechanisms and the utility of these biomarkers for guiding screening and prevention.

Biomarkers Common to Multiple Diseases

Some biomarkers are found in more than one disease and their evaluation requires correlation with clinical manifestations. Some examples are listed in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3 Examples of biomarkers common to multiple diseases



Chromogranin A

Neuroendocrine tumors, cardiovascular disease, sepsis,

C reactive protein

Diabetes mellitus, sepsis, pulmonary diseases, acute myocardial


infarction, renal dysfunction

Cystatin C

Inflammation, myocardial infarction, renal failure, cancer, Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis

Natriuretic peptide

Ischemic heart disease, infections

Nitric oxide

Asthma (in breath), acute respiratory distress syndrome (in urine), cardiovascular disease (in plasma)

Oxidative stress biomarkers

Most diseases with oxidative stress

Serum 100B protein

Traumatic brain injury, stroke, epilepsy (in CSF)

Tau protein

Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, AIDS encephalopathy, alcohol-induced organic brain disorders


Rheumatoid arthritis (serum and synovial fluid), neuroinflammation, ischemic heart disease

© Jain PharmaBiotech

Myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) have been already described earlier in this chapter as biomarkers of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. However, they overlap and clinically correlate with several other disorders.

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