Biomarkers of Prognosis in Cancer Treatment

Various biomarkers of prognosis in cancer treatment have been investigated and some novel ones are shown in Table 13.5. Prognosis is considered in more detail along with biomarkers of individual cancers.

Table 13.5 Novel biomarkers of prognosis in cancer treatment

Bionrarker

Role in cancer

Findings in cancer

Prognostic significance

PI3K/an enzyme that helps control cell growth

Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of PI3K, activate the PI3K-AKT-nrTOR pathway in cancer cells

PIK3CA mutations are frequent in cancers of endometrium, ovaries, and breast

In phase I clinical trials. 40% of patients with mutations in PI3K gene responded to treatment targeting PI3K signaling

CYP2D6/ role in nretaboUzing several drugs

Polymorphisms of the gene may interfere with action of anticancer drugs

Polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and co-administration of drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 reduce plasma levels of endoxifen, the active metabolite of tamoxifen, in patients being treated for breast cancer

Patients who only took CYP2D6- inhibiting medications in conjunction with tamoxifen had worse time to progression and worse overall survival compared to patients who did not take CYP2D6-inhibitors

Т1М? -1/ tissue inhibitor of matrix

metalloproteinase 1

TIMP-1 is over-expressed in many cancers

TIMP-1 is associated with poor outcome in renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

Sorafenib (a multikinase inhibitor) phase III TARGET trial showed that TIMP-1 is an independent prognostic bionrarker for survival in RCC

Trinr62/a novel protein bionrarker

Trinr62 regulates p27 stability but also its localization in HER2 positive breast cancers. p27 in the nucleus functions as a tumor suppressor but. when in the cytoplasm, it may enhance metastasis.

Trinr62 is responsible for the elevated cytoplasmic p27 in HER2 positive breast cancer tumors

Trinr62 could be a potential bionrarker to predict patient response to anti-HER2 therapeutics such as lapatinib

© Jain PharnraBiotech

Abbr: TARGET = Treatment Approaches in Renal Cancer Global Evaluation Trial

 
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