Proteomic Analysis of CSF for Identification of Biomarkers for Gliomas
CSF is a valuable source for potential proteomic biomarkers, because changes in it can sensitively reflect CNS malignancies and 19 differentially expressed proteins have been identified (Shen et al. 2014). Further functional and protein-protein interaction assessments, performed by using Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) website and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software, have revealed several important protein networks (e.g., IL-6/ STAT-3) and four novel focus proteins (IL-6, galanin (GAL), HSPA5, and WNT4) that might be involved in glioma pathogenesis. Specifically, CSF in GBM has significantly lower GAL, HSPA5, and WNT4 levels than CSF from other grades of glioma. In contrast, IL-6 level was significantly higher in GBM when compared with other groups. Therefore, these candidate protein biomarkers, have potentials in clinical diagnosis, prognosis, treatment response monitoring, and as novel therapeutic targets in glioma.