• 1. This chapter is only concerned with the 15 former union republics of the USSR and does not include those statelets that have emerged as a result of frozen conflicts, North Ossetia, Abkhazia or Transdnistr.
  • 2. A regime is defined as the set of rules that govern access to power in the political system.
  • 3. The danger of circularity also exists when scholars shift from an understanding of political culture as subjective values to a wider one including institutions and patterns of action (Lukin 2000, pp. 28-31; McAuley 1984).
  • 4. This is a more general argument about the effect of authoritarian parties in mitigating elite conflict and bringing about unity. For an extended analysis, see Brownlee (2007).
  • 5. Although, he does acknowledge some failures in this initially: Gamsakhurdia in Georgia, Elchibey in Azerbaijan, Nabiev in Tajikistan and Kravchuk in Ukraine (Hale 2015, pp. 127-133).


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Graeme Gill is Professor Emeritus of Government and Public Administration at the University of Sydney and a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia. He has been President of the International Council for Central and East European Studies (ICCEES) from 2010 to 2015. In addition to several coauthored and edited volumes, he has published twelve authored books on various aspects of Soviet and Russian politics. The most recent is Building an Authoritarian Polity. Russia in Post-Soviet Times (Cambridge, 2016).

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