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Notes

  • 1. This chapter is only concerned with the 15 former union republics of the USSR and does not include those statelets that have emerged as a result of frozen conflicts, North Ossetia, Abkhazia or Transdnistr.
  • 2. A regime is defined as the set of rules that govern access to power in the political system.
  • 3. The danger of circularity also exists when scholars shift from an understanding of political culture as subjective values to a wider one including institutions and patterns of action (Lukin 2000, pp. 28-31; McAuley 1984).
  • 4. This is a more general argument about the effect of authoritarian parties in mitigating elite conflict and bringing about unity. For an extended analysis, see Brownlee (2007).
  • 5. Although, he does acknowledge some failures in this initially: Gamsakhurdia in Georgia, Elchibey in Azerbaijan, Nabiev in Tajikistan and Kravchuk in Ukraine (Hale 2015, pp. 127-133).

Bibliography

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Bremmer, I., & Taras, R. (Eds.) (1997). New politics. Building the post-Soviet nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brownlee, J. (2007). Authoritarianism in an age of democratization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bunce, V. J., & Wolchik, S. L. (2011), Defeating authoritarian leaders in post-communist countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dawisha, K., & Parrott, B. (Eds.) (1997a). Conflict, cleavage and change in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dawisha, K., & Parrott, B. (Eds.) (1997b). Democratic changes and authoritarian reactions in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Diamond, L. J. (2002). Thinking about hybrid regimes. Journal of Democracy, 13(2), 21-35.

Dicks, H. V. (1960). Some notes on the Russian national character. In: C. E. Black (Ed.), The transformation of Russian society (pp. 558-573). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gill, G. (2002). Democracy and post-communism. Political change in the post-communist world. London: Routledge.

Gill, G. (2015). Building an authoritarian polity. Russia in post-Soviet times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gorer, G., & Rickman, J. (1949). The people of Great Russia. A psychological study. London: The Cresset Press.

Hahn, G. (2002). Russia’s revolution from above. Reform, transition and revolution in the fall of the Soviet communist regime 1985-2000. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Hale, H. E. (2015). Patronal politics. Eurasian regime dynamics in comparative perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

https://freedomhouse.org (accessed 27 October 2015).

Levitsky, S., & Way, L. A. (2010). Comparative authoritarianism. Hybrid regimes after the cold war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lukin, A. (2000). Political culture of Russian democrats. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McAuley, M. (1984). Political culture and communist studies: one step forward, two steps back. In: A. Brown (Ed.), Political culture and communist studies (pp. 13-39). Basingstoke: Macmillan.

McMann, K. M. (2006). Economic autonomy and democracy. Hybrid regimes in Russia and Kyrgyzstan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mead, M. (1955). Soviet attitudes toward authority. An introductory approach to problems of Soviet character. New York: William Morrow.

Pipes, R. (1974). Russia under the old regime. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Smith, G. (1999). The post-Soviet states. Mapping the politics of transition. London: Arnold.

Szamuely, T. (1974). The Russian tradition. London: Secker & Warburg.

Way, L. A. (2005) Authoritarian state building and the sources ofregime competitiveness in the fourth wave. The cases of Belarus, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. World Politics, 57(2), 231-261.

Way, L. (2010). Resistance to contagion: Sources of authoritarian stability in the former Soviet Union. In: V. Bunce, M. McFaul, K. Stoner-Weiss (Eds.), Democracy and authoritarianism in the post-communist world (pp. 229-252). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Way, L. A., & Levitsky, S. (2006). The dynamics of autocratic coercion after the cold war. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 39(3), 387-410.

White, S. (1979). Political culture and Soviet politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Graeme Gill is Professor Emeritus of Government and Public Administration at the University of Sydney and a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia. He has been President of the International Council for Central and East European Studies (ICCEES) from 2010 to 2015. In addition to several coauthored and edited volumes, he has published twelve authored books on various aspects of Soviet and Russian politics. The most recent is Building an Authoritarian Polity. Russia in Post-Soviet Times (Cambridge, 2016).

 
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