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  • 1. In 1897 in the territory of the present-day Lithuania, 58.3 % of people spoke different Lithuanian dialects, 13.3 % were Yiddish speakers, 10.3 % were Polish speakers, the other 14.6 % spoke other Slavic languages. Very differently from the opinion of the contemporary Lithuanian population, among Polish speakers, peasants constituted 40.9 % of this ethnic group, the gentry 30.2 % and city dwellers 26.4 % (Aleksandravicius and Kulakauskas 1996, pp. 232-233).
  • 2. People of different ethnic backgrounds started cooperating in the name of Lithuanian statehood from various organizations: Tatjana Michniova, Natalija Kasatkina, Medardas Cobutas, Ceslovas Okincicas, Eusejus Jacovskis, Halina Kobeckaite and others.


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Sarunas Liekis is Dean and Professor at the School of Political Science and Diplomacy at Vytautas Magnus University and a member of the Board of the Lithuanian Human Rights Monitoring Institute. He has published 6 authored or coauthored books and over 50 journal articles and book chapters. His most recent book is Jews in the Former Grand Duchy of Lithuania since 1772 (with Polonsky, 2013).

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