1. A liberal definition of democracy goes beyond mere elections as a benchmark as it also requires the existence of the rule of law, a free press, basic human rights and active political participation (through a vibrant civil society) on the part of the general population (Dahl 1973; Diamond

  • 1995). Thus, liberal democratic system allows a polity to exert effective control over their elected political leaders (who themselves become the de facto and de jure rulers of the country).
  • 2. Fareed Zakaria (1997, p. 22) first coined the term illiberal democracy after noticing that many putatively functioning democracies were ‘routinely ignoring constitutional limits on their power and depriving their citizens of basic rights and freedoms’ (see Andras Pap’s chapter in this volume for a deeper discussion on illiberal democracy and the emerging Hungarian model of illiberal democracy). Numerous other terms have also been used to describe this kind of failing democratic system: semi-democracy, pseudodemocracy, managed democracy, competitive authoritarianism, hybrid regime and delegative democracy (Diamond 2002).
  • 3. The interview with a Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) official took place in Brussels on 25 September 2013.
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