• 1. Voronina suggests parallels with the European Economic Community (EEC) quite late in the period, between 1986 and 1992, but this is a stretch because many policy areas (environment, social cohesion, etc.) that were part of the European economic integration agenda circa 1986 are not in the sights of the EEU at present.
  • 2. Gumilev (1912-1992), a prominent Soviet historian and ethnographer, advocated the existence of the Eurasian super-ethnos based on nomadic value systems which comprised, inter alia, Russians and Kazakhs (Shlapentokh 2012). Gumilev’s ideas became popular among the intelligentsia of Soviet Turkic republics in the 1980s. Nazarbaev presided over the foundation of the Gumilev Eurasian National University in Astana in 1996.
  • 3. In 2015, Kazakhstan was among the very few former Soviet republics that were relaxed about being threatened by other states. More than 51 % of the population believed that Kazakhstan had no enemies abroad; the United States topped the list of unfriendly/threatening nations, but only a low 24 % shared this view compared to 77 % in Russia (Eurasian Development Bank 2015, pp. 29-30).
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