Philosophical Issues in Pharmaceutics: Development, Dispensing, and Use

I DevelopmentPatient-Driven Drug DevelopmentChoosing Treatment, Creating TreatmentPatient-Driven DevelopmentThe Risks of Citizen ScienceCan Drug Development Make Room for Patients?The Politics of Patient-Driven DevelopmentConclusionReferencesGlobal Health Disparity and Pharmaceutical Companies’ Obligation to AssistGlobal Disparity in HIV/AIDSHolding Pharmaceutical Companies Morally ResponsibleDuty to Assist: How Far Can We Go?Going Too Far: Downplaying the Broader ContextNot Far Enough: Rethinking Prior RelationshipsLessons for EbolaReferencesHegemony of Knowledge and Pharmaceutical Industry StrategyThe Ghost Management of Pharmaceutical Research and PublicationContract Research OrganizationsPublication PlanningIndustry-Sponsored Dissemination of Medical KnowledgeSales RepresentativesKey Opinion LeadersOrchestration of Continuing Medical EducationSummary and ConclusionReferencesA Call to Stop Treating Doctors Like Delinquent Adolescents and Medical Product Companies Like Criminal EnterprisesThe COI Entrepreneurs’ Argument in a NutshellConflict of InterestThe Perceptions of a Reasonable PersonUndue InfluenceEvidence that Patients Exert Comparatively Irresistible Influence on Physicians PrescribingLegal Analysis of Undue InfluenceSusceptibility: Physician NarcissismCOI ManagementWhat Do Patients Want to Know About Relationship Risk?The COI CascadeFair-Balanced Treatment of a Controversial Issue?Medical Product Marketing Unduly Influences Physicians’ Prescribing with Patient Harm ResultingWhat Evidence Supports These Remarkable Claims?What Are “Negative Results on Clinical Care”?A Better Systematic Review of Industry Influence?Does It Strain Credibility that Industry Marketing May Be associated with Some Positive Patient Outcomes?Physician Industry Consultants Will Put Their Mouths Wherever Their Money IsIs “Drug Reps Off-Campus” Wise Social-Distancing Policy?ConclusionReferencesHealth Measurement, Industry, and ScienceProblems with PROMsValidityInterpretabilityResponsivenessSolutions to PROMsIndustryReferencesII DispensingPatient-Centered Care or Drug-Centered Care: The Influence of Pharmaceutical Marketing on Medical Science and Public HealthPharmaceutical Industry MarketingThe Influence of MarketingCase Study: AntidepressantsCase Study: DiabetesThe Public Health and Inverse BenefitConclusionReferencesIs There a Legitimate Concept of Drug-Centered Care?Drugs Are No Different from Other CommoditiesThe Rejection of Drug-Centered Care Is Based on Inadequate Conceptions of What It Means to Be HealthyEmbedded InstrumentalismSelf-ActualizationDrug-Centered Care and EnhancementDrug-Centered Care and Quality of LifeConclusionReferencesPrescription Paternalism: The Morality of Restricting Access to PharmaceuticalsThe Paternalism ProblemThe Definition of PaternalismThe ImplicationsThe Liberal Critique of Restricting Access to PharmaceuticalsThe Empirical CritiqueIs the Patient Better Off with Current Restrictions?The Doctor Can’t Know What Is BestThe Emergence of the Ethically Exotic CaseThe Discovery of the Ubiquity of Value Choices in PrescriptionsAlternatives to PrescribingThe Libertarian OptionThe Certificate OptionThe Weak Paternalism VersionA Strong Paternalism VersionConclusionReferencesConscientious Refusals in Pharmacy PracticeConscience and IntegrityConscienceIntegrityPractical ResolutionsConventional CompromisePublic Disclosure of Conscientious ObjectionsAdding Further Restrictions to Permitted Use of Conscientious ObjectionsConscientious Objections in an Educational ContextImperfections and Opportunities for a Better ApproachConclusionsReferencesIII UsageUsing Pharmaceuticals to Change Personality: Self-Transformation, Identity, and AuthenticityFrancis’ RequestMedical EnhancementA Threat to Identity?What About Authenticity and Self-Transformation?ConclusionReferencesThe Wisdom of Nature: An Evolutionary Heuristic for Human EnhancementThe Wisdom of Nature and the Special Problem of EnhancementThe E-volution HeuristicChanged TradeoffsGeneral Remarks on TradeoffsResourcesThe BrainThe Immune SystemDemandsLiteracy and NumeracyConcentrationDietary Preferences and Fat StorageThe Interplay Between Resources and DemandsValue DiscordanceGeneral Remarks on Value DiscordanceGood for the IndividualGood for SocietyEvolutionary RestrictionsGeneral Remarks on Evolutionary RestrictionsFundamental InabilityEntrapment in Local OptimumEvolutionary LagDiscussionConclusionReferencesAgainst the Drug Cure Model: Addiction, Identity, and PharmaceuticalsThe Nature of AddictionThe Multitudinous SelfLimitations of Pharmaceutical Remedies for AddictionReferencesPreventive Self-Help and the Six Nonnaturals Remedies from Burton’s Anatomy of MelancholyPreliminary QualificationsThe BookHumors, Faculties, and Mental ProcessesHellebore and BorageRemedies: The Six NonnaturalsEclectic, Preventive, Self-HelpPrevention and Self-Help for DepressionOther Similarities and DifferencesIntegrated Complementary RemediesBurton’s Ace in the Hole, PlaceboMultiple Cause and Remedy Models of DepressionConclusionReferencesLove in the Time of Antibiotic Resistance How Altruism Might Be Our Best HopeThe Dreaded RealityWhat Stokes the Fire?When Local Meets GlobalPrisoner’s DilemmaAntibiotics as Global Climate: Kyoto vs. MontrealFree Market Fails to RescueSpreading Altruism as a Public Health EffortConclusionReferences
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