Irrigation resources

A Indian Irrigation Potential Strategies Irrigation Development in IndiaFirst Century A.D. to Middle of 20th CenturyChain Tanks of Karnataka and Andhra PradeshIrrigation Development in Northern and Eastern India during the 9th to 12th century A.D.Irrigation Development in the 19th Century A.D.Irrigation Works in India in the Pre-independence Era of Twentieth CenturyClassification of Irrigation Works in IndiaIrrigation Development in India During the Five Year PlansNational Water PolicyEnergy Requirement in IrrigationPARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENTInternational StatusDESIGN OF IRRIGATION WELLSReferencesIrrigation Methods in India : An OverviewTypes of Irrigation MethodsBasinBasin-checkBorder stripFurrow or CorrugationSprinklerDrip (or Trickle)Water TableFactors Influencing Selection of Irrigation MethodsSoilLand TopographyClimateWater supplyCropsFarm machineryFactors Influencing PlanningPreliminary planPlanning procedureLayoutApplicationDeliveryDisposalDesign of Surface Irrigation SystemsPhases of Surface IrrigationDesign objectivesDesign principlesDesign DataSub IrrigationNatural sub-irrigationIrrigation Requirements of Common CropsFodder CropsVegetable CropsFruit CropsSpices and CondimentsLawns and GardensPlantation CropsReferencesCrop Water Requirements and IrrigationIrrigation RequirementField Water BalanceEffective RainfallFactors Influencing Effective RainfallNet Irrigation RequirementGross Irrigation RequirementIrrigation periodIrrigation IndicesGeneral Guidelines on Planning Irrigation SchedulesReferencesMicro-Irrigation for Sustainable Water Management in AgricultureIntroductionWater Associated CrisisSustainable Water ManagementSustainabilitySustainable developmentSustainable Development ModelsSustainable Water Management ModelStrategies for Sustainable Water ManagementIrrigation MethodsMicro irrigation systemSuitability of Drip irrigationAdvantage of drip irrigationThe limitation of drip irrigationMoisture availability to cropEnhanced productivity and water use efficiencyPotential of drip irrigationFertigationAdvantages of fertigationResponse of Fertigation to cropsPotential of fertigationConclusionsReferencesWater Management for Irrigation in KeralaRainfall and Water ResourcesCrops of KeralaWater Requirement of CropsIrrigation Infrastructure and Economic EfficiencyConclusionsNOTESREFERENCESNeed to Augment Irrigation Capacity in AgricultureIrrigation in the 11th PlanCreating New Irrigation Potential to Boost AgricultureWater resourcesIrrigation potentialCommand area developmentBasin-wise water resourcesWater availabilityWater demandIrrigation demandIrrigationIrrigation requirements of some important cropsTypes of IrrigationSurface IrrigationLocalized IrrigationDrip IrrigationSprinkler IrrigationCenter Pivot IrrigationLateral move (side roll, wheel line) IrrigationSub-IrrigationManual Irrigation using buckets or watering cansAutomatic, non-electric irrigation using bucklets and ropesIrrigation using stones to catch water from humid airDry terraces for irrigation and water distributionSources of Irrigation WaterProblems in IrrigationTurning over Irrigation Management : Prospects and ConstraintsACTIVE PARTICIPATION OF WATER USERPARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENTEVOLUTION OF CONCERN OF SYSTEM TURNOVERIDEOLOGICAL BASIS OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM TURNOVERBENEFITS OF FARMERS MANAGEMENTBenefits to FarmersBenefits to Irrigation AgencyPROBLEMS IN ORGANISING FARMERSTHE RIGHT APPROACHREFERENCESPeople’s Participation in Irrigation ManagementOVERVIEW OF THE IRRIGATION SECTORPROBLEMS WITH THE IRRIGATION SECTOR IN INDIAChanges RequiredPotential for Bringing about the Required ChangesPositive ElementsThe WeaknessesHow the Changes can be Brought About Organization of FarmersCapacities of the WUA MembersCONCLUSIONIrrigation System in the Context of PIM in IndiaIrrigation Scenario in IndiaGroundwater IrrigationMechanizationObjectives and Necessity of PIMProvision in National Water Policy (2002) & PIM ActsConstraints In Implementation of PIM (Issues)Future Prospects of PimREFERENCESOn-Farm Irrigation : The Science and ManagementOn farm IrrigationWater Requirement and irrigation EfficiencyStatusIrrigation MethodsIrrigation Scheduling and ManagementDynamics of Lift IrrigationBACKGROUND OF THE STUDYOBJECTIVESPROFILE OF THE VILLAGEDescription of the Lift Irrigation SchemeINTERVENTIONS IN THE AREAADOPTERS AND NON-ADOPTERSIMPORTANCE OF LIFT IRRIGATION ON LIVELIHOODS OF ADOPTERS AND NON-ADOPTERSPROBLEMS FACEDRotation SystemConflict among FarmersPoliticisation of the Co-operative SocietyNon-availability of CreditLack of Extension FacilitiesREPLICATION AND RECOMMENDATIONSCONCLUSIONIrrigation : A Necessary Input to Boost AgricultureWater More Valuable Than LandIrrigation PotentialIrrigation during Medieval IndiaIrrigation under British RuleAt the Time of IndependenceIrrigation Development NowDevelopment of Irrigation Potential No more MythDrip Irrigation and Farm ProductivityWhat is Drip IrrigationMerits of Drip IrrigationSaving in irrigation waterIncreased Crop YieldWater with higher Concentration of Salts can be used for IrrigationAdoption to undulated TopographiesLess Weed InfestationLow Incidence of DiseasesReduced Fertilizer RequirementAccumulation of salts in the Root ZoneIrrigation and AgricultureDrip Irrigation System - An OverviewProblems associated with drip irrigation systemsAPPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS AND CHEMICALS THROUGH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEMSPumping UnitDRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEMSInstallation of filters and fertilization unitOperation of the Drip Irrigation SystemMaintenance of Drip Irrigation SystemsStandardization of Drip Irrigation SystemsDesign of Drip Irrigation SystemReferencesWater Lifts and Pumps : An OverviewApplication of Non-conventional Energy Source in PumpingSolar Photo-voltaic Pumping SystemBiogas Engine Powered Pumping PlantsHand Pumps for Domestic Water SupplyPrinciples of Operation of Centrifugal PumpsVERTICAL TURNINE PUMPSSBMIERSIBLE PUMPSSubmersible Pump ConstructionPropeller PumpsOperating CharacteristicsMixed Flow PumpsJET PUMPSAIR-LIFT PUMPS Principle of Working of Air-lift PumpsSELECTION OF PUMPSDetermining the Discharge Capacity of PumpsDischarge capacity of pump based on crop requirementsLift Irrigation SystemsAssessment of Feasibility of Lift Irrigation ProjectsWater AvailabilityDesign of Lift Irrigation SystemsWater Lifting from CanalsWater Lifts and Pumps : An Overview Pump HousePump House for Centrifugal PumpsPump House for Vertical Driven PumpsBooster PumpsReferencesB Strategy Waste and Dry Land DevelopmentWasteland Development in Andhra PradeshEcological status of WastelandsClassification and Estimation of wastelandsLand and Environmental degradation and PovertyProgrammes for Development of WastelandsScenario of Wasteland development in Anantapur DistrictWasteland-A threat to Survival and Quality of Human lifeExtent of degradationCauses and ConsequencesNinth Five Year PlanWorking groupNew approachPeople’s participationInstitutional ArrangementPerformanceWHAT TO DO ?ConclusionWasteland Development ProgrammeWhat is wasteland?NATIONAL WASTELANDS DEVELOPMENT BOARD (NWDB)INTEGRATED WASTELANDS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (IWDP)Wastelands in IndiaWastelands in Manipur : StrategySuggestion for ImprovementSome important threatened speciesMicro Irrigation and Drought ManagementSome problemsDrought ManagementA historical snapshotA Concern on Agriculture and Economic growthFarm output may be affected due to late monsoonEconomic effects of droughtDrought conditions curtail economic growthDrought Situation in Andhra PradeshCrop area : Same story across regionsShort & Long Term Measures to overcomeShort term MeasuresLong term measuresDryland ConservationBackground Definition and characteristicsClassification of drylandsWorld drylandsCauses of dryland formationLoss of resourcesAgronomic or cultural practicesMechanical and engineering methodsWater harvesting structures for dry hilly areasSustainable farming practicesPrecision conservationIntegrated watershed approachRole of agroforestry in soil and water conservation in dryland ecosystemsSloping Agriculture Land Technology (SALT)Biomass transfer technology (BTT)ConclusionDryland and Wasteland FarmingCharacteristics of Dry land AgricultureProblems of Dry Farming in IndiaStatus of Wasteland in IndiaGovernment InterventionConclusionDryland Farming : Issues and StrategiesKey ConstraintsGoals and StrategiesWatershed DevelopmentImproved SeedsSoil HealthBio energy CropsFarm MechanisationLivestock and PastureOrganic FarmingICT and Farm ServicesIssuesNew Policy InitiativesDevelopment of Dryland Agriculture in IndiaResearch in Agro-meteorologyWatershed ProgrammeDepletion of Ground WaterAgro-forestry SystemsCrop Improvement programmeFertilizerPlant Protection MeasuresAlternate Land Use Farming SystemsPoliciesLand Management can Improve Rural EconomyDrylandPoverty in IndiaInitiatives by SLEM Projects in IndiaStrategy to Develop Degraded LandExtent of land degradationPolicy and ProgramsInstitutional SupportPrograms and PerformanceStrategic ActionsInitiative to Sustain Land Resource DevelopmentLand laws in post-Independent India :Government laws and rules for land developmentUnirrigated Agriculture : Problems and ProspectsUnirrigated Agriculture in Tamil NaduCropping pattern and crop diversification in unirrigated agricultureThe Problems of unirrigated agricultureUnstable ProductionUnstable marketLack of InfrastructureLack of drought management of strategiesFailure of Institutional financeLack of Crop InsuranceConclusion and Policy SuggestionsREFERENCESC Land Use and Interlinking of Rivers for Irrigation Value Added Fertilizers for Enhanced PrdouctivityImportance of zinc as a micronutrientZinc deficiency in rice and wheatCauses of zinc deficiencyZinc FertilizersConclusionBalanced Fertilization — Real Benefits for Agriculture SustainabilityBalanced Fertilization Improves Water Quality and Water Use EfficiencyBalanced Fertilization : Important for Desired Food Quality and Premium PriceLand Use and Agrarian RelationsLand Use PatternCase for Land Use PolicyDemographic PressureLand degradation as a result of External featuresPolicy InterventionThe Integrated ApproachLand Acquisition in India Need for A Paradigm ShiftDoctrine of Eminent DomainLand System of IndiaMultiple Land Acquisition Laws and Multiple Authority of Land AcquisitionJust Compensation for LandLack of Developed Land MarketLand for Land DemandFalse Food Security AlarmRehabilitation and ResettlementTransparency and AccountabilityShrinking of Rivers and the Global Water Crisis : Issues and SolutionsMismanagement of Water ResourcesConclusionInter Linking of RiversIrrigationIrrigation potentialNeed for Interlinking riversConclusionREFERENCESInterlinking of Rivers in India : Problems and ProspectsHow, when and by whom - A short history of ILRPlan (NPP) envisaging inter basin transferUneven water availabilityHimalayan Rivers DevelopmentPeninsular Rivers DevelopmentArguments against interlinking of riversConclusionReferencesSaving Water in Rice Cultivation : Technological OptionsLand PreparationField channelsTillage and PuddlingBund preparation and its maintenanceRaised bedsBefore main crop establishmentAlternate wetting and dryingCrop establishment methods a. Dry seedingAerobic riceConservation agricultureDrainage for Sustainable AgricultureDrainage criteriaTypes of drainage systemSurface Drainage SystemCauses of surface drainageFactors affecting drainageOpen-surface drainageParts of surface drainage system:Design criteria for field drainageDesign of surface drainsSide slopesChannel gradeChannel depth and widthChannel bottom widthBerms and spoil banksFree boardLocation, spacing and alignmentPatternsRandomParallelGradingSmoothingGood surface drainage practiceSubsurface DrainageTypes of subsurface drainage systemsOpen drainsTile drainageMole drainageVertical drainageSubsurface drainage coefficientDrainage system layoutSpacing between drainsMeasurement of in situ hydraulic conductivityHooghoudt’s methodErnst’s method for layered soilsChild method with two auger holesDrainage MaterialsTiles materialsHigh density polyethyleneDrain envelopes and filtersEnvelope materialGravel envelopeFiltersConclusionsReferencesA New Beginning on Water in the 12th PlanLimits to Large DamsThe Crisis of GroundwaterNeed for a Paradigm ShiftTen Elements of the Paradigm ShiftLarge Irrigation ReformParticipatory Aquifer ManagementBreaking the Groundwater-Energy NexusWatershed Restoration and Groundwater RechargeA New Approach to Rural Drinking Water and SanitationConjoint Water and Wastewater Management in Urban IndiaIndustrial WaterNon-Structural Mechanisms for Flood ManagementNew Institutional Framework State-level RegulatorsNew Legal Framework New Groundwater LawNational Water Framework Law (NWFL)ConclusionReferencesRivers under threat-Strategies for SafeguardWater Contamination
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