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Irrigation Development in Northern and Eastern India during the 9th to 12th century A.D.

Rajput rulers were reigning different parts of the Northern and North-Western India. King Krishnaraja made significant contribution in irrigation development. The Bhopal lake built during his period has 647 sq km of surface area and an extensive system of irrigation channels.

Vijayanagara Kingdom (1336 to 1500 A.D.). The Vrjayanagara Kingdom was established by King Harihara I in A.D. 1336. Large-scale land reclamation and irrigation works were given boost by the kings. The most famous of these is the Anantaraja Sagar tank in Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh.

Mughal Period (14th and 18th centuries AD.). Major efforts in irrigation development during the period was construction of numerous tanks and dug wells in Peninsular India and Rajasthan by local rulers. Amongst the Mughal emperors Ferozshah Tughlaq built the Western Yamuna Canal in A.D. 1355 to carry Yamuna water to his hunting ground at Safidem in Hisar district (Haryana). The canal was abandoned after his time. Later, Emperor Akbar renovated the canal in 1568 for irrigating lands in Hisar district. Emperor Shahjahan restored the silted and unusable Western Yamuna Canal and took a branch canal to 59 irrigate the gardens in the Red Fort, in Delhi. Emperor Shahjahan built a 180 km canal from Ravi river through the Shalimar Gardens at Lahore. A branch of this canal carried water to the Golden Temple in Amritsar. A large part of Punjab and Kashmir were benefited by it. During the British period, this canal was replaced by the Upper Bari Doab Canal system. The Eastern Yamuna Canal system was constructed by Emperor Mohammad Shah in A.D. 1735. The canal was useful during the initial period, but got silted within a few decades. Development works did not make any major strides during the second-half of the eighteenth century, mainly due to the unstable governments in Delhi.

 
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