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Command area development

There has been large scale irrigation development but there was short fall in utilization of the potential created. To focus attention on efficient utilization of the created resources, a multi disciplinary agency, the command area development authority was constituted in 1974-75. The command are development programme broadly covers :

  • (a) On farm development works;
  • (b) Introduction of rotational system of water distribution within the out let common (warabandi);
  • (c) Adoption of suitable cropping pattern roistering of irrigation

system;

  • (d) Development of ground water for conjunctive use;
  • (e) Arrangement and supply of agricultural inputs and services including short term credit;

(f) Development of necessary infrastructure in the shape of roads, markets and ware housing/cold storages.

Command area development programme has been implemented in more than 100 irrigation projects with good results.

Basin-wise water resources

Monsoonal climate causes a highly skewed distribution of the resource availability and calls for its conservation in soil profile, aquifers, ponds, lakes, reservoirs and rivers for use during the lean period.

India is a very fortunate country to have many rivers whose total catchment's area is estimated to be 252.8 million hectares. Central water commission, Government of India, has divided the whole country in 20 river basins comprising 12 major basins, each having catchment's area exceeding 20,000 km2 and 8 composite river basins combining suitably together ll the other remaining medium and small river systems.

Major basins are : i) Indus; ii) Ganga-Brahamputra Meghna; iii) Godavari; iv) Krishana; v) Cauvery; Mahanadi; vi) Pennar; vii) Brahmani- Baitarni; viii) Sabarmati; ix) Mahi; x) Narmada and xi) Tapi.

Likewise 8 composite river basins are : i) Subarnarekha- combining subarnarekha and other small rivers between Subarnarekha and Baitarni; ii) East flowing rivers between Mahanadi and Pennar; iii) East flowing rivers between Pennar and Kanyakumari; iv) Area of inland drainage in Rajasthan desert; v) West flowing rivers from Tapi to Tadri; vi) West flowing rivers from Tadri to Kanyakumari; Minor rivers draining into Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh. Catchments area and water resources potential of these basins is given in Table 2.

Table 2. Basin wise water potential in India

S.N.

River basin

Catchment area (km2)

Water resources (km2/year)

As per Central Water Commission 1993

As per NCIWRDP 1999

1.

Indus

Ganga-Brahamputra-Meghna

321,289

73.31

73.31

2.

Basin Ganga

862,769

525.02

525.02

3.

Brahamputra sub-basin

197,316

537.24

629.05

4.

Meghna (Barak) sub-basin

41,157

48.36

48.36

5.

Subarnarekha

29,196

12.37

12.37

6.

Brahmani-Baitarni

51,822

28.48

28.48

7.

Mahanadi

141,589

66.88

66.88

8.

Godavari

312,812

110.54

110.54

9.

Krishna

258,948

78.12

69.81

10.

Pennar

55,213

6.32

6.32

11.

Cauvery

87,900

21.36

21.36

12.

Tapi

65,145

14.88

14.88

13.

Narmada

98,796

45.64

45.64

14.

Mahi

34,842

11.02

11.02

15.

Sabarmati

21,674

3.81

3.81

16.

West flowing rivers of Kutch and Saurashtra including Luni

334,390

15.10

15.1

17.

West flowing rivers south of Tapi

113,057

200.94

200.94

18.

East flowing rivers between Mahanadi and Godavari

49,570

17.08

17.08

19.

East flowing rivers between Godavari and Krishna

12,289

1.81

1.81

20.

East flowing rivers between Krishna and Pennar

24,649

3.63

3.63

21.

East flowing rivers between Pennar and Cauvery

64,751

9.98

9.98

22.

East flowing rivers south of Cauvery

35,026

6.48

6.48

23.

Area of North Ladakh not draining into Indus

28,478

0

0.

24.

Rivers draining into Bangladesh

10,031

8.57

8.57

25.

Rivers draining into Myanmar

26,278

22.43

22.43

26.

Drainage areas of Andman, Nicobar & Lakshadweep Islands

8,280

0

0

27.

Total

3,287,260

1,869.37

1952.87

28.

Approximately Say

-

1870

1953

Total surface water resources of the country (yearly average streams flow) are about 1,869 km2. Due to uneven distribution of rainfall, both spatial and temporal, only 37% (690 km3) of the surface renewable water resources are estimated to be potentially utilizable. This low proportion is primarily due to low potentially utilizable water resources in the Meghna Brahamputra river basins. The Brahamputra River covers only 7.6% of the geographical area, accounting of 31% of the total renewable water resources.

According to Central Water Commission, potential utilizable for India are 690 km3 of the surface water and 432 km3 of the ground water (total 1,122 km3 or BCM).

 
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