Menu
Home
Log in / Register
 
Home arrow Environment arrow Irrigation resources
Source

Problems in Irrigation

  • 1. Competition for surface water rights.
  • 2. Depletion of underground aquifers.
  • 3. Ground subsidence
  • 4. Under irrigation gives poor salinity control which leads to increased soil salinity with consequent builds up of toxic salts on soil surface in areas with high evaporation. This requires either leaching to remove these salts and a method of drainage to carry the salts away or use of mulch to minimize evaporation.
  • 5. Over irrigation because of poor distribution uniformity or management wastes water, chemicals, and may lead to water pollution.
  • 6. Deep drainage (from over irrigation) may result in rising water tables which in some instances will lead to problems of irrigation salinity.
  • 7. Irrigation with saline or high sodium water may damage soil structure.

The central government initiated the Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) from 1996-97 for extending assistance for the completion of incomplete irrigation schemes. Under this programme, projects approved by the Planning Commission are eligible for assistance. Under the AIBP, Rs. 50,380.64 crore of central loan assistance (CLA)/ grant has been released up to 30 November 2011. As on 31 March 2011, 290 projects were covered under the AIBP and 134 completed. During 2010-11, an irrigation potential of 566.24 thousand ha is reported to have been created by states, from major/medium/minor irrigation projects under the AIBP, while the higher irrigation potential would help augment production and productivity, assured remuneration from such production is vital for development of agriculture. The government has also been creating irrigation potential through public funding and assisting farmers to create potential on their own farms. Substantial irrigation potential has been created through major, medium and minor irrigation schemes. The total irrigation potential in the country has increased from 81.1 million ha in 1991-92 to 102.8 million ha in 2006-07. The potential created so far is estimated to be 73.5 per cent of the ultimate irrigation potential (Table 8). Of the total potential created, however, only 87.2 million ha (84.9 per cent) is actually utilized.

Table 8. Irrigation potential created and utilized (million ha)

1991-92

1992-97

1997-02

2002-07

Annual rate of growth (%)

Eighth

Plan

Ninth

Plan

Tenth

Plan

Eighth

Plan

Ninth

Plan

Tenth

Plan

Cumulative potential created (million ha)

Major and medium

30.7

33.0

37.1

42.4

1.4

2.4

2.7

Minor

50.4

53.3

56.9

60.4

1.1

1.3

1.2

Total

81.1

86.3

94.0

102.8

1.2

1.7

1.8

Cumulative potential utilized (million ha)

Major and Medium

26.3

28.4

31.0

34.4

1.6

1.7

2.1

Minor

46.5

48.8

50.0

52.8

0.9

0.5

1.1

Total

72.9

77.2

81.0

87.2

1.2

1.0

1.5

Per cent utilization

Major and Medium

85.6

86.3

83.7

81.3

-

-

-

Minor

92.4

91.5

87.9

87.4

-

-

-

Total

89.8

89.5

86.2

84.9

-

-

-

The pace of creation of additional irrigation potential came down sharply from an average of about 3 per cent per annum during 1950-51 - 1980-90 to 1.2 per cent, 1.7 per cent and 1.8 per cent per annum, respectively, during the Eighth, Ninth and Tenth five year Plan periods. The rate of growth of utilization of the potential created declined to 1 per cent per annum during the Ninth Five Year Plan period and improved to

1.5 per cent per annum during the Tenth Five Year Plan Period. The average annual rate of utilization remained lower than the average annual addition to the irrigation potential resulting in the cumulative utilization witnessing continuous erosion. This not only amounts to an inefficient use of funds, but also a forgone income from irrigated lands.

Responding to the continuous decline in the rate of creation in irrigation potential, the Central Government initiated the Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) from 1996-97 for extending assistance in completion of irrigation schemes which had remained incomplete (Table 9). Under this programme, the projects approved by the Planning Commission were eligible for assistance. Further, the assistance, which was entirely a loan from the Centre in the beginning, was modified with inclusion of a grant component from 2004-05. The AIBP guidelines were further modified in December 2006 to provide for 90 per cent of the project cost as grant to special category States, DPAP/Tribal areas and KBK (Koraput, Bolangir and Kalahandi) districts of Orissa.

Table 9. Performance of AIBP Projects (Rs. Crore and area thousand ha)

Year

Central loan assistant/grant released

Total potential created under AIBP

Total potential created

1996-97

500.0

74.5

560.0

1997-98

952.2

182.0

645.2

1998-99

1,119.2

259.0

592.2

1999-2000

1,450.5

223.2

666.0

2000-2001

1,856.2

528.8

983.5

2001-02

2.602.0

442.8

1,214.6

2002-03

3,061.7

456.0

812.0

2003-04

3,128.5

447.0

1,004.0

2004-05

2,867.3

496.0

1,000.0a

2005-06

1,900.3

600.0

1,500.0a

2006-07a

2.302.0

932.0

-

Total

21,739.9

4,641.3

-

aEstimated

Under AIBP, the State Governments were provided Rs. 24,867.4 crore as CLA/grant for 229 major/medium Irrigation projects and 6,205 surface Minor Irrigation (MI) Schemes up to January 29, 2008. So far 91 major/medium and 4,605 surface MI schemes have been completed. In the current year, as on January 29, 2008, Rs. 3,127.5 crore has been released for AIBP.

To cover a larger area under irrigation, the Government sanctioned a National Project for Repair, Renovation and Restoration of Water Bodies directly linked to agriculture, in January 2005 with an estimated cost of Rs. 300 crore to be shared by the Centre and States in 3 :1 ratio. The water bodies having cultivated command area of more than one ha and up to 2,000 ha were included under the pilot scheme in one or two districts in each State. The Scheme was approved for 26 districts in 15 states. Central share of Rs. 179.3 crore has been released to the States till November 30,2007, covering 1,098 water bodies. The physical work for restoration has been completed for 733 water bodies and the work is in progress in the remaining 365 water bodies.

Following the pilot scheme, restoration of water bodies has also been taken up in States having considerable number of water bodies with the World Bank assistance. The World Bank Loan Agreement has been signed with Tamil Nadu for Rs. 2,182 crore to restore 5,763 water bodies having a cultivated command area (CCA) of 4 lakh ha. The Rs. 835 crore Andhra Pradesh Community Based Tank Management Project was signed with the World Bank in June 2007 for restoration of 3,000 water bodies with a CCA of 2.5 lakh ha. The project of Karnataka was signed for Rs. 259 crore with the World Bank in November 2007 for restoration of 1,225 water bodies involving a CCA of 0.52 lakh ha. The proposals from Orissa and West Bengal Governments have also been submitted to the World Bank.

Irrigation is one of the six components for the development of rural infrastructure under the Bharat Nirman and aims at creating the more irrigation potential in the coming time to mitigate the drought situations whenever it is being experienced and increased agricultural production to feed the burgeoning population in India.

 
Source
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >
 
Subjects
Accounting
Business & Finance
Communication
Computer Science
Economics
Education
Engineering
Environment
Geography
Health
History
Language & Literature
Law
Management
Marketing
Mathematics
Political science
Philosophy
Psychology
Religion
Sociology
Travel