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It is necessary to have a thorough knowledge about physical and chemical characteristics of the soil meteorological behaviour and economical conditions of the inhabitants before putting a land under irrigation in order to avoid hazards of developing waterlogging. Salinity and alkali problems. The physical status is viewed from the point of texture, permeability, non capillary porosity, water table depth, soil depth, topography, water holding capacity etc. The chemical status of land are characterised by soluble salt content, exchangeable sodium and pH.

Loamy soil texture is ideal for irrigation. Clayey texture hinders leaching and results in poor aeration, while sandy texture increases water application losses. High values of water holding capacity, depth of soil and non capillary porosity are desirable characteristics from both irrigation and drainage points of view. Higher content of soluble salts in soil results in salinity problems and those of exchangeable sodium in alkali problems, pH value beyond 9 is undesirable on account of alkali hazards. Neither is the pH below 4.5 good as availability of nutrients to plants becomes a limiting factor.

 
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