Standardization of Drip Irrigation Systems
Indian standards for different facets of drip irrigation systems are formulated by Irrigation and Farm Drainage Equipment and System Sectional Committee of the Bureau of Indian Standards. Most of the Indian Standards on irrigation equipment are based on corresponding international standards, which have been adopted after suitable modifications to meet indigenous requirements.
Design of Drip Irrigation System
Design of a drip irrigation system broadly involves the estimation of water requirement of the crops to be irrigated, number of drippers and laterals, diameter of the main, sub-main and lateral pipes, and the size of the pumping unit. The major difference between drip irrigation and other methods of irrigation is that not all the area is irrigated. Under normal conditions in widely spaced crops, a minimum of 30% of the area is irrigated when the drip system is adopted. For mature trees, about 75% of the area may have to be irrigated, while nearly the entire area is irrigated in case of closely-spaced crops. The necessary data to be collected includes soil type, infiltration characteristics of the soil, type of crops, consumptive use of water by crops, water quality, and climate, Class A pan evaporation data, and the availability of funds. A topographical map of the area to be irrigated, with contour lines at a spacing of about one metre is necessary in planning and layout of the system.
A check list of procedures in designing a drip irrigation system is given below:
- (i) Prepare on inventory of available resources and operating conditions,
- (ii) Determine the water requirement to be met by the drip system.
- (iii) Determine the appropriate type of the system.
- (iv) Determine the type and design of emitters (on-line/ in-line and the specific type required),
- (v) Determine the capacity of the pumping system,
- (vi) Decide on the economic sizes of the piping system,
- (vii) Determine the maximum and minimum operating pressures and the minimum efficiency requirement,
- (viii) Determine the appropriate filtering system to suit the site conditions.
- (ix) Determine the requirement of the fertilization system,
- (x) Plan field evaluation.
(xi) Prepare drawings, specifications, cost estimates, schedules and instructions for proper layout, installation, operation and maintenance.
EPC Irrigation Ltd. Leaflet, EPC Drip Irrigation, B-20 MIDC, Ambad, Nasik, Maharashtra, P. 18
Jyoti Limited, Vodadara, Leaflet, Jyoti Drip Irrigation System, Jyoti Ltd.
Industrial Area, Vadodara, Gujarat, P. 4 Karmeli; D and Keller, J., (1974). Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System, Proc.
Second Drip Irrigation Congress, San Diego, California, USA.
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (1992), Model Scheme for Financing Drip Irrigation For Availing Bank Finance, NABARD, Mumbai, p.30
Netafim Irrigation Equipment and Drip System, Leaflet, Netafim Drip Irrigation Systems, Kibbutz Hatzerim Israel, P. 4.
Patel, V.C. and Angadi, S.S. (1997), Drip Irrigation, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, P. 40
Rajput, T.B.S. and Neelam Patel (2002), Drip Irrigation Manual, Water Technology Centre, IARI, New Delhi, P. 53.