Water harvesting structures for dry hilly areas
Water harvesting is a prominent and technically feasible technology in arid hilly areas. It helps in runoff harvesting and ground water recharging. Different types of water harvesting structures are used for efficient utilization of rainfall. Such as community tanks, inter-terrace runoff harvesting, hill spring outflow harvesting and rooftop harvesting structures. Runoff utilization is increasingly becoming a common practice in dryland conservation agriculture.
There are other approaches which can be adopted for conservations of dryland ecosystems. These research based approaches are as :
- (i) Sustainable farming practices
- (ii) Precision conservation
- (iii) Integrated watershed approach and
- (iv) Use of agroforestry
Sustainable farming practices
The past decades have witnessed a dramatic change in agriculture with food production soaring due to green revolution. The green revolution entailed the use of improved technologies like high yielding crop verities, expansion of irrigation, mechanization and the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Sustainable agricultural practices are not new, but drawn on traditional knowledge and practices, adopted to ensure food security and maintaining productivity of dryland ecosystems on sustainable basis. These practices are conservation tillage, integrated nutrient management, agroforestry, water harvesting, livestock integration, use of FYM and mulches, green manuring and integrated pest management etc. to maximize productivity without compromising the needs of the future generations.