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Policy and Programs

Acknowledging the acute problem of land degradation, the Government, in its efforts to sustain ecological environment, agricultural productivity and production, has initiated from time to time several policies and programs to prevent land degradation on one hand and take remedial measures to improve the quality of degraded land on the other.

Institutional Support

In order to facilitate the understanding of the problems, nature and magnitude of land degradation and initiate measures to remedy the situation by formulating national policy and programs the Government has created institutional infrastructure, viz. [i] Soil and Land Use Survey of India [SLUS] was established in 1958 at IARI, New Delhi with seven centers located at Noida, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Ranchi, SLUSI has a mandate to provide detailed scientific database on soil and land characteristics to various States for planning and implementation of programs relating to soil and water conservation and natural resource management. During 2011-12, SLUSI had targets of 101 lakh hectares of Rapid Reconnaissance Surveys, 3.62 lakh hectares of Detailed Soil Surveys and 131 lakh hectares of Soil Resource Mapping against which it has completed soil surveys of 82.15 lakh hectares [81.3%], 1.65 lakh hectares [45.6%) and 52.25 lakh hectares [43.2%] respectively till January 2012. [ii] It has also established Remote Sensing Center in 1982 for application of advanced technologies in soil survey [iii] Detailed Soil Survey of ''very high'' and ''high'' priority watersheds to provide detailed soil data base for planning and execution of soil conservation projects and for scientific land use planning using large scale base map [iv] District wise Soil Resource Mapping to create repository of soil data base in the country [v] Development of Digital Spatial Data Base on Hydrologic Units, Soil and Land Information using Geographic information System, Ration Data Base Management System for GIS based Web Services [vi] Development of State wise Micro watershed Atlas of India [vii] Creation of Platform Free State wise Micro watershed Atlas for dissemination of watershed information [viii] Organization of short term training Courses on soil and Land Resource data Base for integrated watershed Development planning. Soil Conservation Training Center, DVC, Hazaribagh, Jharkhand organizes medium and short term training courses for field functionaries and project staff of State Governments engaged in implementation of soil and water conservation programs.

Table. Region wise extent of Land Degradation in India [Area in '000 ha]

Region

Water

erosion

Wind

erosion

Water

log

ging

Salinity/

alkali

nity

Soil

acidity

Com

plex

problem

Degra

ded

area

Geogra

phical

area

8 as % of 9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Northern

12002

[47.4]

[12.8]*

8828

[34.9]

[93.1]*

2040

[8.1]

[14.3]*

1962

[7.7]

[33.0]*

157

[0.6]

[1.0]*

324

[1.3]

[4.4] *

25313

[100]

[17.2]*

71472

[21.7]*

35.4

NorthEast

4146

[32.8]

[4.4]*

00

522

[4.1]

[3.6]*

00

5534

[43.9]

[34.5]*

2422

[19.2]

[32.8]*

12614

[100]

[8.6]*

26219

[8.0]*

48.1

Eastern

9249

[61.0]

[9.9]*

00

3392

[22.4]

[23.7]*

474

[3.1]

[8.0]*

1848

[12.2]

[11.5]*

194

[1.3]

[2.6]*

15157

[100]

[10.3]*

41833

[12.7]*

36.2

Southern

22330

[73.1]

[23.8]*

00

5031

[16.5]

[35.2]*

723

[2.4]

[12.2]*

1179

[3.9]

[7.3]*

1302

[4.3]

[17.6]*

30565

[100]

[20.8]*

63576

[19.3]*

48.1

Western

16446

[77.0]

[17.5]*

443

[2.1]

[4.7]*

599

[2.8]

[4.2]*

1350

[6.3]

[22.7]*

519

[2.4]

[3.2]*

1993

[9.3]

[27.0]*

21350

[100]

[14.5]*

50743

[15.4]*

42.1

Central

29275

[70.5]

[31.2]*

212

[0.5]

[2.2]*

2709

[6.5]

[18.9]*

1416

[3.4]

[23.8]*

6796

[16.4]

[42.4] *

1126

[2.7]

[15.2]*

41534

[100]

[28.3]*

73786

[22.4]*

56.3

Delhi + UTs

242

[84.3]

[0.3]*

00

06

[2.1]

[0.1]*

19

[6.6]

[0.3]*

00

20

[7.0]

[0.3]*

287

[100]

[0.2]*

973

[0.3]*

29.5

Total

93680

[63.8]

[100]*

9483

[6.5]

[100]*

14299

[9.7]

[100]*

5944

[4.0]

[100]*

16033

[10.9]

[100]*

7381

[5.0]

[100]*

146820

[100]

[100]*

328602

[100]*

44.7

Figures in parentheses indicate percentage share of concerned category of degradation to the total degraded area. Figures in parentheses with * indicate percentage share of the region in the total

 
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