Saving the Environment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Organizational Dynamics and Effectiveness of NGOs in C

The Book in the Context of Past ResearchResearch Site, NGOs, and Data CollectionEnvironmental NGOs in Cameroon: Three TypesInternational NGOsCameroonian NGOsType I and Type II NGOsResearch Questions and AudiencePlan of the BookTheoretical FrameworkInterest Group TheoryThe Free Rider ProblemSocial Movement TheoryDefinitionsResource Mobilization TheoryNew Social Movement TheoryTheories of Political Opportunity StructureRelevant Lines of Social Movement ResearchSocial Movements in Developing Countries: The Environmentalism of the PoorPolitical Systems in Sub-Saharan AfricaLow Government Revenues and Dependence on Revenues from AbroadCentralization of Power and Self-Perpetuating RuleClientismCorruptionEthnic/Tribal, Religious, and Regional PoliticsWeak and Ineffective GovernmentPolitical Instability: Military Coups, Civil Wars, and Civil StrifeImplications for Environmental NGOsTheories of Civil SocietyProblems with Civil Society Practice and TheoryTheories of OrganizationsOpen Systems TheoryResource Dependence ModelsInstitutional TheoriesApplication of Organizational Theory to Environmental NGOsResearch MethodsInformation from Previous ResearchInformation from DocumentsInterview DataSampling Environmental NGOsInterview Schedule and InterviewsType I and Type II NGOsConclusionGeography, Demography, and Environmental ProblemsGeographyTopographyClimateEcological ZonesDemographic ProfileEnvironmental ProblemsDeforestationSoil Erosion and Loss of Soil FertilityDesertificationBiodiversity LossWater Shortages and Water PollutionSolid WasteAir PollutionCoastal IssuesSummary and ImplicationsEconomic, Political, and Social ContextThe Economic ContextBrief Economic HistoryEarly Economic HistoryThe Economy after IndependenceEconomic Crisis and Structural AdjustmentsThe Cameroonian Economy TodayInfrastructureLabor Market, Unemployment, and PovertyWomen in the EconomyDevelopment Efforts and Their LimitationsThe Political ContextPolitical HistoryEarly Political HistoryPostindependence CameroonRuling Party Strategies for Retaining PowerThe Cameroonian Political System TodayPower and Politics in Local CommunitiesEnvironmental LawThe Politics and Law of NGOs and AssociationsCameroonian Social StructureEthnicity, Language, Religion, and RegionFamily Structure and Gender InequalitiesSummary and ImplicationsA Profile of the NGOsEnvironmental NGO OriginsNGO ContinuityNGO Size and EmployeesStrengths and WeaknessesEnvironmental NGO GoalsGoal Setting and Goal ChangeActivitiesSuccess in Reaching GoalsHindrances to SuccessSummary and ImplicationsThe Biggest Problem: MoneyObstacles to Obtaining Adequate FundingEnvironmental NGO BudgetsFunding SourcesChronic Funding Shortages and Their EffectsProblems Resulting from Dependence on Foreign FundsEnvironmental NGO Goals and Funder Priorities“Briefcase NGOs”Reporting Requirements and ProposalsThe Overhead ProblemSummary and ImplicationsRelationships with GovernmentEfforts to Influence GovernmentExtent and Nature of NGO Relationships with GovernmentQuality of Relationships with GovernmentSummary and ConclusionsRelationships with Local CommunitiesResearch ResultsNumber of Communities ServedQuality and Nature of Relationships with Local CommunitiesCommunity CollaborationsConclusions and ImplicationsRelationships with Other Environmental NGOsRelationships with Environmental NGOs outside CameroonNature of International Contacts and AssistanceQuality of International RelationshipsRelationships with Cameroonian NGOsQuality of Relationships with Other Cameroonian NGOsSummary and ImplicationsImplications for TheoryTypes of NGOsEnvironmental NGOs and Civil SocietyCompensating for State and Market FailureStrengthening DemocracyBuilding Social CapitalDevelopment of a Deliberative PoliticsEnvironmental NGOs and the “Environmentalism of the Poor”Perspectives from Organizational TheoryImplications for PracticeFunding and Fund-raisingBuilding Fund-Raising CapacityCooperation in Fund-RaisingLocating Appropriate Funding SourcesRaising Funds from BusinessRaising Money from Cameroonians AbroadSales of Products and ServicesConsider Avoiding Grant WritingGoalsLimit the Number and Diversity of GoalsConsider Goal Differentiation and SpecializationConsider Pursuing Neglected GoalsStrengthen Environmental EducationManagement and GovernanceProfessionalize ManagementStrengthen Boards ofDirectorsRelationships with Local CommunitiesRelationships with GovernmentGovernment Should Simultaneously Embrace and Monitor the NGO SectorGovernment Should Assist Environmental NGOsConsider Comanagement of ProjectsRelationships with Other NGOsBuild a Strong Association of Environmental NGOs Operating in CameroonConclusion
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