The Political Context
Cameroon’s political context is also of great importance to environmental NGOs. It influences the types of environmental problems that exist, the extent and nature of government efforts to solve them, the legal framework within which NGOs operate, their freedom of speech and action, and their ability to obtain funds and other types of support from government.
Cameroon’s current political system has been strongly shaped by its history, which we summarize below. Our account is based on the sources listed here (LeVine, 1964, 1986, 2004; Fanso, 1983; M. W. DeLancey, 1986; Kofele-Kale, 1986; Van de Walle, 1990; Jua, 1991; Derrick, 1992; Bayart, 1993; Takougang, 1993a, 1993b, 1997, 2004; Azevedo, 1995; Mentan, 1995; Nwki and Nyamnjoh, 1995; Schilder, 1995; Fombad, 1997b, 2004; Gardinier, 1997; Mbaku, 1997, 2004a, 2005; Yenshu, 1997; Eyoh, 1998a, 1998b; Fonchingong, 1998; Takougang and Krieger, 1998; Gabriel, 1999; Fonchingong and Fonjong, 2002; Gros, 2003b; Mentan, 2003; Ngenge, 2003; Fombad and Fonyam, 2004; Nyamnjoh, 2004, 2008; Fonjong, 2006, 2007a, 2007b; Gadsa, 2007).