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CONTROLLING INFLUENZA VIRUS DISEASE BURDEN

The primary control of seasonal influenza epidemics is achieved through a comprehensive vaccination program [111]. There are two competing influenza vaccine moieties currently licensed for use in the United States: killed or inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines (Table 6.1). Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIVs or IIV3s) consist of three viruses that are propagated independent of one another in embryonated chicken eggs, detergent inactivated, and then combined together to be administered as a single inactivated vaccine preparation [111]. Historically,

TABLE 6.1

Current Licensed Influenza Vaccines Available in the United States

Vaccine Type

Brand Name/Manufacturer

Delivery

ACIP Indication for Usea

Inactivated, egg grown

Trivalent (IIV3)

Afluria/CSL Limited

Intramuscular

>9 years

Fluarix/GSK

Intramuscular

>3 years

FluLaval /ID Biomedical

Intramuscular

> 3 years

Fluvirin/Novartis

Intramuscular

> 4 years

Fluzone/Sanofi Pasteur

Intramuscular

6-35 monthsb

>36 months

> 6 months

Fluzone Intradermal/Sanofi Pasteur

Intradermal

18-64 years

Trivalent (IIV3), high dose

Fluzone High-Dose/Sanofi Pasteur

Intramuscular

>65 years

Quadrivalent (IIV4)

Fluarix Quadrivalent/GSK

Intramuscular

> 3 years

FluLaval Quadrivalent/ID Biomedical

Intramuscular

> 3 years

Fluzone Quadrivalent/Sanofi Pasteur

Intramuscular

6-35 monthsb

> 36 months

Inactivated, cell culture grown

Trivalent (ccIIV3) Recombinant

Flucelvax/Novartis

Intramuscular

>18 years

trivalent (RIV3) Live attenuated

FluBlok/Protein Sciences

Intramuscular

18—49 years

Quadrivalent (LAIV4)

FluMist Quadrivalent/MedImmune

Intranasal

2-49 years

Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices—United States, 2013-2014 [103].

 
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