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SUMMARY

  • • TCM, particularly TCM injections, is widely applied in the standard treatment for hospitalized patients with respiratory diseases in China, but ADRs associated with TCM injections are worrisome.
  • • Nebulized TCMs, when used alone or as add-on therapy, have positive therapeutic benefits for patients with respiratory diseases.
  • • Nebulized TCMs lead to comparable or superior efficacy to the intravenously infused counterparts.
  • • Nebulized TCM treatments generally have fewer side effects than intravenously infused TCM and are free of severe ADR associated with TCM injections.
  • • The inhalation route may provide a viable, noninvasive, safe, and efficacious means as an alternative to TCM injections.

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