Entrepreneurship Culture

In the process of promoting entrepreneurship, programs that support entrepreneurial activities are a commendable start but are only one of the series of steps required to establish a sufficiently fostering environment. For this reason, developing 'entrepreneurial culture' is as important as launching programs to enable entrepreneurs to enter the innovation arena. At the same time, the Knowledge Triangle [23] emphasizes the key role of linkages among education, research, and innovation actors in order to utilize education and research for innovation. Fostering innovative capacity and entrepreneurship in universities has thus recently been an important policy tool.

The Singapore Government establishes a council in every university to promote the environment of innovativeness and entrepreneurship. Moreover, specific support mechanisms are used in the system to encourage such activities in universities. The University Innovation Fund provides support for various ranges of activities to generate a climate of innovation in universities, such as entrepreneurship trainings, awards, consultancy service procurement from professors with private sector experience, and internships.

As a ranking index including entrepreneurship, the Entrepreneurial and Innovative University Index was prepared for the first time in Turkey in 2012. Now in its fourth year, the 50 most entrepreneurial and innovative universities are announced annually. Through ranking universities according to their entrepreneurial and innovative performances, the index increases positive competition among universities, hence fostering an entrepreneurial and innovative ecosystem. The universities are ranked according to data collection across a set of 23 indicators in five pillars. These pillars are scientific and technological research competence, intellectual property pool, cooperation and interaction, entrepreneurship and innovativeness culture, and last but not least, economic contribution and commercialization [24].

From a system's perspective, the index is part of a larger strategy to develop a culture and entrepreneurship capability in universities. While the index measures performance, the Capacity Building for Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Support Program (TÜB˙ITAK 1601) supports universities, NGOs, and firms to provide mechanisms for activities including mentorship, training, brokerage events, investor readiness programs, and fundraising events. Under this program, the first call was launched as the University Certification Program for Entrepreneurship (1601.1) that supported undergraduate and graduate entrepreneurship certification programs. In this call, universities are supported in implementing certification programs of a minimum of 120 h aimed at undergraduate and graduate students as well as academic staff for building entrepreneurship capabilities. Following the training program, certificates are granted to the successful entrepreneurs who pass the evaluation examination [17].

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