Large-Scale Mega Projects

In China, 16 National Mega Projects have been launched under the Development Plan (2006–2020). While three are classified as confidential, 13 are characterized as civil-purposed projects and military-purposed projects as listed below [30]. For example, the 'Mega New Drug Development Program', under the aegis of the National Mega Projects Initiative, received about $2 billion to be used in the years from 2011 to 2015.

Civil-purposed projects

1. Core electronic devices, high-end general chips, and fundamental software

2. Mega-scale integrated circuit manufacturing technologies

3. Next generation of broadband wireless mobile networks

4. Advanced digital control machines and fundamental manufacturing equipment

5. Wastewater control and treatment

6. Key new drug innovation

7. Prevention and treatment of key infectious diseases (e.g., HIV/AIDS, hepatitis)

8. Large-scale development of oil & gas fields and coal-bed gas

9. Breeding of new variety for transgenic biology

Military-Purposed Projects

1. Large-scale advanced pressurized water reactor and high temperature gas-cooled nuclear power plants

2. Mega-airplanes

3. High-resolution earth observation system

4. Manned space flight and lunar exploration

Similarly, the Korean Government is securing new growth engines for a sustainable economy and improving the quality of life by developing fundamental technology in biology, nano-science, energy, environment, and other promising fields. There are six thematic umbrella support programs being implemented by the National Research Foundation of Korea [31]. The themes are identified and several full-scale projects have been supported under each umbrella program. The mission-oriented, thematic programs are as follows:

1. Bio-Medical Technology Development Program

2. Nano-Material Technology Development Program

3. Next-Generation Information Computing Program

4. High Technology Convergence Technology Development Program

5. Public Welfare & Security R&D Program

6. Global Frontier Program

For example, the “Development of New Medicine” is one of the themes that are adopted under the aegis of the Bio-Medical Technology Development Program. This theme's target is to develop 10 commercial therapeutic drugs by the year 2019. Another initiative for the health sector is The Korea Drug Development Fund. The Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE), the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Education, Science and Engineering have created this fund for drug development, which has received a total of 27 million USD in contributions.

In addition, mega projects, which are seen to be flagship “landmark” projects, are launched as a special kind of mission-oriented approach in Turkey. Most notably, this includes electric vehicle technology, through the Public Institutions

Research and Development Projects Support Program (TÜB˙ITAK 1007) [32]. The

aim of TÜB˙ITAK 1007 is to solve technological problems and satisfy public institutions' needs by means of R&D projects. Through the use of TÜB˙ITAK 1007, it has been possible to launch large-scale, high budget mega projects targeting the country's needs. Examples of such projects are the high-resolution communication satellite project, the electric vehicle project, and the wind turbine project. Most of these mission-oriented projects involve large-scale budgets of over 30 million USD.

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