• International university cooperation is a must, especially for students and university academics and professors in the early stages of their careers.

• In recent years, universities have managed to include international cooperation

and international relations as an integral element of their missions and functions. This has been accomplished by universities assuming responsibility for cooperating with other institutions internationally.

• International university cooperation can be specifically identified as education,

research, training, and culture cooperation, and scholarships.

• Research cooperation among researchers is particularly complicated when the researchers work at institutions in different countries due both to geographical distance and cultural differences, which can affect communication and the research project's overall conduct.

• The number of exchange students globally is increasing for the eighth consecutive year. The total number of Saudi students studying abroad is growing rapidly, largely funded by the Saudi government scholarship program.

• International student/staff exchanges increase the concerned individuals' capac-

ity for self-reflection, self-reliance, and self-confidence. Such exchanges also help individuals develop more mature and objective perceptions concerning their home and foreign countries, thereby contributing to international peace by enhancing multicultural understanding. It has been demonstrated that such exchanges also crucially promote creative thinking.

• International cooperation in higher education is a strategic goal of crucial

importance to the Saudi Ministry of Education. In line with this goal, the ministry is actively involved in building bridges of knowledge between Saudi universities and world distinguished educational institutions and promoting knowledge and cultural exchange.

• Each Saudi university, including King Abdulaziz University, has established

joint international cooperation agreements and service contracts with many of the world's top-ranking, distinguished universities and educational institutions.

• The international strategic policy of world-class universities, such as the

University of Copenhagen, is intended to improve education, strengthen both external and internal collaboration, build research partnerships with other world-class universities, and attract top talent from around the world. Success in so doing provides a diversity of academic environments and scientific approaches and is a mark of distinction and strength.

• The world-class university endeavors to develop its leading position by provid-

ing researchers and students with excellent opportunities for cooperation and exchange with other national and international universities. Successful implementation of this strategy enables the university's researchers and students to participate in international research and research-based teaching and acquire a truly global outlook. Such a strategy can be implemented by means of research projects, graduate student conferences, summer programs, workshops, conferences, and congresses.

• Cooperative grants and programs, such as the Fulbright scholarship program,

promote mutual understanding between individuals and institutions in the global arena. Such mutual and mutually beneficial understanding can be accomplished through the educational and cultural exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills and is of crucial significance to mankind's aspirations to live in peace and harmony.

• Cooperative programs provide opportunities for study, lecturing, curricular

development, post-doctoral research, advanced joint research grants, visits, and aid in promoting mutual cultural understanding. Such programs also assist in the internationalization of campuses, curricula, and communities.

• Programs such as those described in this chapter facilitate international educa-

tional and cultural exchange for graduating seniors, graduate students, teachers, professionals, scientists, and artists. This exchange is accomplished through direct interactions of individuals who are able to meet, work with, live with, and learn from host country inhabitants in a daily sharing of mutually enriching cultural experiences.

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