Leader Behaviour Taxonomies
Leadership behaviours conceptualized as two-factor models have been criticized for oversimplifying the complex phenomena of leadership (Yukl, 1999). Innovation research has also been criticized for using single leader behaviours as one factor among many while examining the rela?tionship between leadership and innovation (de Jong & Hartog, 2007). As one of our concerns is in identifying individual impact of leader behaviours on explorative and exploitative activities, we need a more refined conceptualization of leader behaviours. Leaders take on many different roles in the process of leading (Mintzberg, 2007). They are able to do this by behaviours that can be categorized into the following meta-categories: task-oriented, relations-oriented, change-oriented, and external behaviours (Yukl, 2012b). The primary focus of task-oriented behaviours is efficiency that of change-oriented behaviours is to encourage learning and adaptation, relations-oriented behaviours are used by leaders to enhance member skills and the rapport with their subordinates, and finally external behaviours are directed outwards in getting relevant information and resources external to their immediate influence. Other researchers have also used the managerial practices scale (MPS) for looking at the effects of leadership on creativity and innovation (Amabile et al., 2004; de Jong & Hartog, 2007). In addition, the MPS categorizes leader behaviours into functional groups that are posited to have different effects on followers. This makes it eminently suitable for our framework. This is another departure in our work compared to Rosing et al. (2011), as they have defined a dichotomy of leader behaviours which are a priori expected to lead to explorative and exploitative activities in followers. By using a leader behaviour taxonomy that is comprehensive and well developed (Arnold, Arad, Rhoades, & Drasgow, 2000), we hope to provide incremental evidence for a dialectical framework within which to look for relationships between leadership and innovation.