Successful implementation requires measurement. How well are we doing on the strategic lines we set out? Education performance, for example, can be measured approximately by:

• Graduate (un)employment rates (university role in linking with labor market);

• High levels of graduates' satisfaction with their studies 3 years subsequent to graduation;

• High levels of employers' satisfaction with graduates 3 years subsequent to


• Student questionnaires on satisfaction with education (numerous examples in Germany and the Netherlands);

• Student-course-evaluations.

Measures of research performance are widely and readily available, such as in citations, public-private scientific publications, etc. All of these measures are to be strategically refined. Does the university want graduates to have a high level of international understanding? If the answer is in the positive, then this level of international understanding requires appropriate measurement. Qualitative scales are available. It is a challenge to show not only how graduates score, but also how scores have changed during degree courses and how this has been achieved. HBS wants to contribute to the integrity of graduates. This is required to be measurable (again, qualitative scales are available, for example the Giotto scale [6]).


Incentives in education are generally the most difficult to come by, as the career of the professor seems so overwhelmingly determined by the research performance of the staff member. Education prizes and professorial education careers have turned out to be helpful instruments in incentivizing educational quality.

Incentives could also be made available in monetary terms, linking the quality of degree program to budget allocation levels. The inherent danger here that has to be acknowledged is that what are perceived as being underperforming programs face the threat of becoming financially squeezed. For such programs special treatment may be a solution, as the quality problems are often persistent and not cured by purely financial remedies, but require major staffing and structural changes. Budget allocation can also be based in part on graduate numbers or on the throughput rate in degree courses.

Personal incentives can also be applied in monetary terms for individuals, such that only those that perform well receive annual increases, while those whose performance is rated as excellent receive additional financial rewards. Dismissals for serious underperformance should also be invariably available to universities striving for excellence.

Balanced Score Cards

Many universities render their strategy implementation visible through the use of balanced score cards. These score cards are also a means of making universities' performance accountable to external environments. Such score cards might enumerate the aims for the number of graduates, for successful accreditation of programs, for student and graduate satisfaction, for research performance, for the attraction of international students and staff, and for female professors among other things.

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