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Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World

Bats in the AnthropoceneBats in the Anthropocene: The Conservation of a Nocturnal TaxonWhy Care About Bat Conservation?About This BookReferencesI Bats in Anthropogenically Changed LandscapesUrbanisation and Its Effects on Bats—A Global Meta-AnalysisIntroductionThe Urban ContextUrban WildlifeBats in Urban EnvironmentsEvidence-Based Evaluation of the Effect of Urbanisation on Bats Worldwide Using a Meta-AnalysisData Acquisition and Meta-AnalysisHigh Versus Lower Levels of UrbanisationPhylogeny Versus Functional EcologyContrasting the Effects between North and South America and Europe, Asia and Australia Focusing on InsectivoresAdaptability of Species to Urban Areas: General Trends, Species-Specific Differences and Future ResearchReferencesBats and RoadsIntroductionBat Life HistoryBat Conservation StatusThe Effects of Roads on Bats—Habitat Destruction, Fragmentation, Degradation and Collision MortalityLoss of HabitatThe Barrier EffectRoadkillHabitat Degradation—Light, Noise and Chemical PollutionSpecies-Specific EffectsRoad Class and SpeedCumulative Effects, Extinction Debt and the Importance of ScaleSecondary Effects—Infill and Increased Urban and Industrial DevelopmentCan Roads Benefit Bats?Conservation in Principle: Avoidance, Mitigation, Compensation and EnhancementConservation in PracticeOver-the-Road Methods: Gantries, Green Bridges, Hop-Overs and Adapted Road/Foot BridgesUnder-the-Road Methods: Underpasses, Culverts and Other 'Tunnels'Light AvoidanceThe Importance of Connectivity and the Maintenance of Existing FlightlinesHabitat Improvement and Effective Landscape-Scale PlanningRailReferencesResponses of Tropical Bats to Habitat Fragmentation, Logging, and DeforestationHabitat Conversion: A Key Aspect of Global ChangeTropical Bats in a Changing WorldReview MethodologyBiases in Our Understanding of Responses of Tropical Bats to Habitat AlterationResponses at the Population and Assemblage LevelHabitat FragmentationGeneral PatternsArea and Isolation EffectsResponses to Landscape StructureSpatial and Temporal Scale Dependence in Responses to FragmentationEdge EffectsLoggingSecondary Forests and SuccessionAgroforestry SystemsTree PlantationsAgriculture and Residual Tree CoverGenetic ConsequencesBehavioral ResponsesEffects on Selected Species InteractionsGeneral Conclusions and Future Research DirectionsInsectivorous Bats and Silviculture: Balancing Timber Production and Bat ConservationIntroductionMajor Forest AreasNorth AmericaEuropeAustraliaComplexity of Bat Habitat NeedsMature, Large Diameter TreesDeadwood Availability and Hollow Tree DensityUnderstory VegetationSlope and AspectForest EdgeBat Responses to Silvicultural TreatmentsLoggingClearcut and Deferment HarvestsVariable Retention HarvestsGroup Selection HarvestsSalvage LoggingRecovery Times After Timber HarvestThinning Young ForestsHarvest Exclusion AreasPlantationsPreyMulti-spatial Scale Forest ManagementSummary and Future PossibilitiesGlossaryReferencesBats in the Anthropogenic Matrix:IntroductionMethodsEffects of Agricultural Intensity on Bat Assemblage Structure, Behavior, and EcologyPesticide Impacts on Bat PopulationsEcosystem Services Provided by Bats in Agricultural SystemsInsectivorous Bats and Pest LimitationNectarivorous Bats and Pollination ServicesThe Issue of Ecosystem Disservices of Bats to Agricultural ProductionDiscussionSparing, Sharing, and the Devaluation of Manufactured CapitalResearch PrioritiesFilling in Biogeographical Knowledge GapsLinking Farm Management, Ecosystem Services, and Landscape-Level ProcessesPest Suppression in the Face of Climate Change, Pesticides, and GM CropsQuantifying Impact and Value Across Crops and BiomesChanging Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Bats in the Developing WorldReferencesDark Matters: The Effects of Artificial Lighting on BatsIntroductionTypes of Artificial LightThe Growth of Light PollutionProjected Changes in TechnologyThe Biological Effects of Light PollutionImpacts of Light Pollution on Intraand Inter-specific CompetitionEffects of Artificial Light on Physiological HomeostasisInterference of Light Pollution with Nocturnal NavigationBat VisionObservational Studies on Bats at Street LightsExperimental Studies on Bats at Street LightsWinners and Losers: Light-Tolerant and Light-Averse BatsEffects of Light Pollution on Ecosystem Services Provided by BatsKnowledge Gaps, Future Challenges and Mitigation StrategiesKnowledge GapsMitigation StrategiesFuture ChallengesReferencesBats and Water: Anthropogenic Alterations Threaten Global Bat PopulationsGeneral IntroductionEcology of Bats and Water in Drylands EnvironmentsWater Sources Used by BatsBodies of Water as a Drinking SourceBodies of Water as a Foraging HabitatWater, Roosts and ReproductionThreats to Water Sources Used by BatsLoss of Sources of WaterMiningAgricultureWaste WaterMitigation and RestorationRestoration of Water Sources and Related HabitatsArtificial Water SourcesConclusion and Future DirectionsReferencesII Emerging DisesasesWhite-Nose Syndrome in BatsIntroductionDisease MechanismsDisease Ecology of WNSStatus of P. Destructans/WNS in EuropeConservation and ManagementConclusionsReferencesZoonotic Viruses and Conservation of BatsIntroductionEmerging Viral Diseases: Why Bats?Zoonotic Viruses of Bats and Their SpillOverRhabdovirusesParamyxovirusesCoronavirusesFilovirusesMain Conservation Issues Related to Bat VirusesDirect Effect: Viruses Killing BatsIndirect Effects: Biased Public PerceptionIndirect Effect—CullingIndirect Effect—Killing of Bats for Virus SurveysCounter Measures in Favour of Bat ConservationPreventing the Emergence of New Viral DiseasesEducational EffortsEnvironmental ConservationConservation of Bat Populations and Population DynamicsConclusionReferencesIII Human-Bat ConflictsImpacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global PerspectiveIntroductionComposition and Estimates of Bat FatalitiesNorth AmericaEuropeAfricaNew Zealand and AustraliaSouth America, Central America, and the CaribbeanAsiaConclusionsPatterns of Bat FatalityTemporal PatternsSpatial PatternsHabitat RelationshipsClimate and Weather VariablesOffshore Wind FacilitiesEstimating RiskCumulative ImpactsMitigating Bat MortalityConservation PolicyFuture DirectionsReferencesExploitation of Bats for Bushmeat and MedicineIntroductionBackgroundOverview of Bat HuntingHunting Overview by RegionAfricaAsiaPacific (Oceania)South AmericaWhy Bat Hunting is a Conservation ProblemNegative Impacts on Bat Populations and EcosystemsNegative Impacts on HumansOverhunting as a Growing Concern for ConservationHow Hunting Affects BatsExpert OpinionDetermining Hunting Impacts on Bat PopulationsMeasuring Hunting Mortality RatesEstimating Hunting Impact from Population DeclinesConservation Management to Mitigate Hunting ImpactsEnforcement of Hunting ProhibitionRegulated HuntingControl of Guns, Ammunition, and Other Bat Hunting ToolsRoost Site ProtectionEducation and Awareness RaisingKnowledgeBehavior—Local Commitment to Conservation of Bats and Bat HabitatCapacity Building of Local Rangers/PA ManagersStakeholder Engagement and Citizen ScienceRecommendations for Conservation of Hunted BatsMore Research is Needed to Understand Hunting ImpactsResearch to Understand How to Protect BatsEducation/OutreachProtect Colony Locations at the RoostRegulated HuntingEncourage Local Researchers and NGO'sConclusionAppendix. List of Hunted Bat Species Showing Primary Use (Food or Medicine), Summarized by Region and Country. We Followed IUCN Regional ClassificationReferencesThe Conflict Between Pteropodid Bats and Fruit Growers: Species, Legislation and MitigationIntroductionThe Extent of Feeding by Bats on Fruit Crops and Its ImplicationsThe MediterraneanAfrica and the Indian OceanIndian SubcontinentSoutheast AsiaAustralia and Papua New GuineaThe PacificFood-Borne Zoonotic Disease Risk from Pteropodid BatsLegislative Approach to Reducing Pteropodid Damage to CropsAustraliaCyprusIsraelJapanMalaysiaMauritius and MadagascarSouth AsiaThailandNon-lethal Methods of MitigationNetting and Associated Tree ManagementDecoy CropsDeterrents/Aversion AgentsCombined Methods of MitigationBiological Control Agent—Weaver Ants Oecophylla longinodaRecommendations and Issues for Future ConsiderationBetter Knowledge of Pteropodid Diet and Foraging PreferencesFunding Interventions and Research to Mitigate the Pteropodid–Grower ConflictEducation of Growers and the PublicConclusionsReferencesBats and Buildings: The Conservation of Synanthropic BatsIntroductionWhat Is the Purpose of This Review?Relevant Natural History Features of Synanthropic BatsWhich Bat Species Use Buildings?Human–Bat Conflict in Buildings and the Legal Protection of Synanthropic BatsHow Do Bats Find and Use Buildings?Buildings as Foraging SitesBuildings as Shelters During Foraging BoutsBuildings as Maternity RoostsBuildings as Swarming SitesBuildings as HibernaculaBenefits of a Synanthropic Lifestyle in BatsIncreased Fitness of Bats Using BuildingsEnhanced Access to Habitats by Using Buildings as Ecological Stepping StonesExpansion of Geographic RangesNegative Consequences of a Synanthropic Lifestyle in BatsDecreased Fitness Owing to Direct ThreatsDecreased Fitness Owing to Indirect ThreatsConsequences for Humans Sharing Buildings with BatsBenefits of Sharing a Building with BatsPathogen and Parasite ExposureNoise, Odor, Dust, and ActivityHarmful BatsDestruction of Buildings Caused by Bat ExcretaConservation of Bats in Buildings: Avoidance, Mitigation, and CompensationGeneral Considerations for the Conservation of Bats in BuildingsAvoiding or Mitigating Roost Losses in BuildingsCompensating for Lost RoostsLoss of Roosts Due to Demographic Changes in the Human PopulationExamples of Good PracticeExample 1: The Outreach Program for the “Bat-Friendly House”Example 2: Renovated Buildings Designated for Bat Conservation PurposesSynthesis and OutlookReferencesConservation Ecology of Cave BatsIntroductionWhy Do Cave Bats Matter?Life in CavesCave SelectionInfluence of Cave MicroclimateImportance of Bats for Cave EcosytemsConservation ThreatsSeasonality and Climate ChangeIncidental DisturbanceExtractive IndustriesCave TourismInsights from Long Term StudiesDeclines in Cave BatsConservation ResponsesNational and International Initiatives for the Protection of Cave BatsDevelopment of GatingArtificial Hibernacula and Maternity RoostsRecent InitiativesFuture DirectionsReferencesIV Conservation Approaches, Educational and Outreach ProgramsThe Roles of Taxonomy and Systematics in Bat ConservationIntroductionThe Continuing Age of DiscoveryThe Role of the Taxonomist in ConservationTaxonomy and International AgreementsTaxonomy as a Conservation Planning ToolA Basic Question: What is a Species?Listing Species for ProtectionDownsides of Species ListingInventory and Monitoring ProgramsDefining Protected AreasEstimating Extinction Risk and Extinction Rate: The Role of PhylogeneticsImpediments to Taxonomic ResearchConservation in the Era of Molecular PhylogeneticsThe Problem of “Taxonomic Inflation”ConclusionReferencesNetworking Networks for Global Bat ConservationIntroductionExisting Bat Conservation NetworksCommonalities of Existing NetworksOrigins and ActivitiesStructure and MembershipChallenges to Network SustainabilityWhat We Can Learn from Theories of Network Structure and FunctionNetwork Structure and FunctionStructural Characteristics of Effective Conservation Networks: Within Subgroup Cohesion, Across Subgroup Collaboration, Bridging Actors, and Peripheral ActorsToward a Global Network of NetworksDo We Need a Global Network?Strengthening Existing NetworksFilling Regional Gaps—Establishing New NetworksNetworking Networks for Global CoverageRecommendationsReferencesCute, Creepy, or Crispy—How Values, Attitudes, and Norms Shape Human Behavior Toward BatsIntroductionTheories of Behavior and Behavioral ChangeValuesTheoryEmpirical ValuesAttitudesTheoryEmpirical Attitudes Toward Animals and Factors Affecting ThemPrior Attitudes and Values of Wildlife and NaturePrevious Experience and KnowledgeRelationship Between Species and Humans—Cultural Significance and Utility ValueHuman Perceptions of Individual SpeciesSocial NormsAssessing Attitudes, Values, and NormsRecommendationsReferences
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