Light Avoidance

To reduce the potential for disturbance of roosts, flight routes and feeding sites lighting is often directed down toward the road surface, and light spill into the surroundings is minimised. However, since the most vulnerable bats, such as Rhinolophus species, fly close to the ground, downward pointing lighting may still have a significant impact on their behaviour. Restricting lighting in crossing structures such as pedestrian underpasses could increase their use by bats. In addition to choosing the intensity, wavelength and direction of lighting, it could also be controlled be timers and motion sensors. Lighting at river and stream crossings should always be avoided, as these are particularly important foraging areas and commuting routes for bats.

Conversely, light may be used to purposely deflect bats away from a dangerous flight route toward a safe crossing point. This has been done, but has not yet been tested for effectiveness and may exacerbate any barrier effect. This assessment is important not only to protect bats, but other wildlife too, since many species avoid light.

The Importance of Connectivity and the Maintenance of Existing Flightlines

An important consideration that is frequently referred to is the need to maintain existing flightlines. There is evidence to support this and it is clearly a sensible precaution. As discussed above, Berthinussen and Altringham (2012b) found that an underpass on a pre-existing flightline was used by 96 % of the bats crossing the road, but attempts to deflect bats to two other underpasses displaced from known routes were not successful.

An extension of this is the general recommendation to maintain and enhance a 'connected' landscape, i.e. a landscape with a broad range and high density of interconnecting linear features such as hedgerows and treelines. This would not only increase the value of the landscape for foraging and commuting, but may give bats more flexibility in how they adapt to a changing landscape and in particular the appearance of barriers in the form of roads. This makes intuitive sense, given the known behaviour of many bat species, and there is a growing body of evidence based on spatial analysis to support it (e.g. Boughey et al. 2012; Bellamy et al. 2013; FreyEhrenbold et al. 2013; Bellamy and Altringham 2015). These studies highlight, using different approaches, the importance of these features to bats, and also reveal species differences: woodland-adapted species (e.g. Myotis, Plecotus, Rhinolophus) and small generalists (e.g. Pipistrellus) make more use of (and are more dependent upon) these features than larger open-air species (e.g. Nyctalus, Eptesicus).

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