(b) Sense of control

Sense of control is related to positive constructs, such as belief in the possibility of certain outcomes, competences, mastery, confidence and comprehension (Sweeney & Witmer, 1991). In the psychological literature “sense of control” is also referred to as “locus of control” (originally coined by Rotter, 1966), which refers, according to Zimbardo (1985, p. 275), to the “belief about whether the outcome[s] of our actions are contingent on what we do (internal control orientation) or on events outside our personal control (external control orientation).” Myers et al. (2000, p. 254) emphasise that sense of control is positively related to wellness and effective coping, improved physical health and self-esteem. It is therefore important for the holistic wellness of an individual.

(c) Realistic beliefs

The dimension of realistic beliefs is related to the ability to perceive reality as it is at the moment, to adjust beliefs regarding perfection and acceptance and the ability to revise negative and destructive self-dialogue (Myers et al., 2000). It has been argued that matching subjective and objective realities - so that the individual is able to respond to life events and challenges in a realistic and appropriate way - contributes to improved health and well-being (Myers et al., 2000). A discrepancy between the individual’s subjective reality and an objective reality perception may lead to inadequate observations and expectations and consequently to a decrease in wellness (Myers et al., 2000). Myers et al. (2000, p. 254) point out: “Healthy people are able to process information accurately and perceive reality as it is rather than as they wish it to be. People who have realistic beliefs are able to accept themselves as imperfect.”

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