Particularly during the past decades, the media have gained influence on individuals and societies. Witmer and Sweeney (1992) highlight that the media might influence the individual in terms of needs, beliefs, priorities, values and norms, as well as attitudes and desires. In addition, the media might influence public policies. The influence of the media on the individual and the society can relate positively and negatively to health and well-being through access to positive and negative events (Sweeney & Witmer, 1991): The media, for example, contribute to ill-health if they marginalise ethnic or cultural groups (Nairn, Pega, McCreanor, Rankine, & Barnes, 2006). The media contribute positively to health and well-being when they use, for example, interactive technology tools, thus providing a sense of control to the individual (Street, Gold, & Manning, 1997). Particularly social media devices are increasingly used for health promotion and education and can increase health and well-being if applied carefully (Korda & Itani, 2013). The media can, however, have a negative impact on health and well-being when individuals use them extensively. The extensive use of media might increase obesity, aggressive behaviour, substance use or eating disorders and thus affect health and well-being negatively (Strasburger, Jordan, & Donnerstein, 2012).

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