Government, governmental practices and policies have a positive or negative impact on wellness: Witmer and Sweeney (1992) highlight that health-oriented policies can contribute positively to the wellness of individuals and groups. At the same time, governments are seen as being responsible for reducing risks to health and wellbeing and promoting a healthy life style for individuals and groups in society (WHO, 2002). Governments are requested to recognise the holistic approach of welfare programmes to address psychological and material needs, as well as community-based approaches, and to promote coping skills in education and rehabilitation (Wilkinson & Marmot, 2003).
Business or Industry
Work environments have a significant effect on the health, well-being and wellness of individuals (Mayer, 2011). Organisations, businesses or industry, can influence the health and wellness of employees by creating healthy work environments that empower individuals and foster them. Healthy workplaces promote health on different levels, including physical, mental, social, psychological and spiritual health (Mayer & Boness, 2011a). Healthy work environments usually have spill-over effects in society and individuals and increase self-worth, energy levels and happiness. Employees who feel well usually increase productivity, effectiveness and a sense of coherence (Mayer, 2011) and have an increased ability to deal with challenges (Mayer & Boness, 2013).
The life forces affect the life tasks, as described above, and are simultaneously influenced by the global events that are discussed in the following section.