Critical Aspects of the Holistic Wellness Model in This Study
First of all, the study is - with regard to holistic wellness in the life of Paulo Coelho - limited to one particular model of wellness, namely the HWM. It is therefore reductionist with regard to choosing only one theory of holistic wellness. By using this theory and applying it to the life of Paulo Coelho, the study is limited with regard to its focus on the life of Coelho and the data of analysis chosen.
Like any other positive psychology study, this study can be criticised in terms of reductionism and the neglect of socio-historical, cultural and economic factors, which are not primarily addressed (Fouche, 1999). At the end of this study, it must be highlighted that the study’s focus is on the individual, Paulo Coelho, and not as much on the influence of the socio-historical context. The HWM is limited with regard to the wellness indicators regarding cultural background, gender or developmental stages and lack of the exploratory framework of holistic wellness development, as already mentioned by Fouche. These aspects have been reflected with regard to the influence and bias of the researcher and with regard to their limitations in the study.
The model is limited to the selected life tasks, forces and global events and can be criticised for this focus, which defines spirituality as the core. This is valuable for the study on Paulo Coelho, whose life focus is on spirituality - however, this focus also limits the view on the person. The concepts of meaningfulness (also mentioned by Nel, 2013) and vocation in life are not explicitly mentioned as life tasks in the HWM. This can be seen as a limitation. However, these two limitations are addressed through the FDT in this study.
Myers and Sweeney (2008) highlight that the values in the HWM tend to be universal and transcend time and culture and that culture influences holistic wellness (Myers et al., 2000; Mayer & Geldenhuys, 2014; Mayer & Viviers, 2014a). This study, however, could not explore the connection between holistic wellness, universal concepts and cultural background in depth. It therefore offers limited conclusions regarding holistic wellness and culture in Coelho’s life.