Revision of Quality Criteria in This Research

The quality criteria (Gummesson, 2000; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Sinkovics, Penz, & Ghauri, 2008; Van der Riet and Durrheim, 2008) need to be revised, as shown in Table 9.1.

Table 9.2 Psychobiography markers revised for this study

Good psychobiography markers

Addressed and extended in this study


The decision on cogency in this study lies in the hands of each individual reader; however, the researcher tried to establish “basic interpretive persuasiveness” through the description of the data and the flow in data analysis and interpretation.

Narrative structure - extended to narrative, analytical and creative structure

This study only partly uses a “narrative structure”. Narrative and analytical structures are combined and it is argued that in psychobiographical research, narrative and analytical structures need to be combined with the creative and intuitive potential of the researcher, with creative expressions, the use of narrations, as well as tables, figures and pictures to present the findings in a creative and structured way.


The researcher aimed at establishing comprehensiveness of the life and work of Paulo Coelho through her perspective and aimed at illuminating details and questions of the life analysed.

Data convergence

Data from various sources were used (primary and third person documents, documentaries, creative works etc.) to ensure data convergence.

Sudden coherence

The researcher tried to elucidate the life of Paulo Coelho throughout the study, which is shown in the findings section and the outcome of this study.

Logical soundness

The researcher aimed for logic and soundness throughout the study.


General knowledge of human functioning was combined with the information gained from the data for interpretation.


The researcher aimed to withstand attempts at falsification throughout the study process.

Source: Researcher’s own construction

In parallel to the general quality criteria in qualitative research, the markers of (good) psychobiographical research were referred to.

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