• 1. Samia Mehrez, Egypt’s Culture Wars: Politics and Practice (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2010), 1-13.
  • 2. Edward Said, “Opponents, Audiences, Constituencies and Community,” in The AntiAesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture, ed. Hal Foster (New York: New Press, 1998), 181.
  • 3. Quoted in Joseph Kay, “Intellectuals and Power: A Conversation between Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze,”, September 9, 2006, /intellectuals-power-a-conversation-between-michel-foucault-and-gilles-deleuze.
  • 4. Ali Ahmed Ali, “Ihtikam hatheera Farouk Hosni,” Masress, May 30, 2013, http://www
  • 5. Said, “Opponents,” 181.
  • 6. “Birnameg Hizib Horiya Wa a’dala,” Ikhwanwiki, .php?title=%D8%A8%D8%B1%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%AC_%D8%AD%D8%B2%D8%A 8_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9_%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8% B9%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A9 (accessed August 2, 2016).
  • 7. In 2004, a translation of Amin Maalouf’s book Deadly Identities was issued (Beirut: Dar al-Farabi). It raised a fuss at the time because of its rejection of a “fixed” identity, a concept that was new to the Arab world, which has always sought a unitary, fixed identity.
  • 8. Arjun Appadurai, Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1996), 4.
  • 9. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (New York: Verso, 1983).
  • 10. Sadik Jalal al-Azm, The Mental Taboo: Salman Rushdie and the Truth within Literature (London: Riad El-Rayess Books, 1992).
  • 11. In the year 2000, a crisis erupted following the publication of Haidar Haidar’s novel Banquet for Seaweed, and then similar crises arose around various novels, movies, poems, and magazines. Later, social outcry centered on actresses’ public statements (for example, the crisis of Farouk Hosny’s statement on the Hijab) and their wardrobes (for example, Yousra’s famous dress).
  • 12. Document available at &cat_id=io8 (accessed August 8, 2016).
  • 13. Peter Steinfels, The Neoconservatives (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979), 65.
  • 14. Cornel West, “The New Cultural Politics of Difference,” in The Cultural Studies Reader, ed. Simon During (London: Routledge, 1993), 213.
  • 15. Ibid., 214.
  • 16. The term transversality was first developed by Felix Guattari in 1964 as a result of his experience at the La Borde clinic in France. His theory takes as its point of departure the forced relationship of the various segregations between the world of the insane and the rest of society and the need to avoid at any cost taking the object of institutional therapy “out of the real context of society. Guattari sought to introduce open collective practices that worked across the confines of the institution itself.” See in particular Felix Guattari, “Transversality,” in Molecular Revolution: Psychiatry and Politics, trans. Rosemary Sheed (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1984).
  • 17. Gerald Raunig, Art and Revolution. Transversal Activism in the Long Twentieth Century (New York: Semiotext[e], 2007), 18.
  • 18. Michel Foucault, “The Subject and Power,” Critical Inquiry 8, no. 4 (Summer 1982): 781.
  • 19. Asef Bayat, Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East, ISIM Series on Contemporary Muslim Societies (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010), 97.
  • 20. All the information relating to this campaign can be found on its official site: http://www
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