• 1. The views expressed in this chapter do not represent those of the other authors in this volume, and are not indicative of a consensus among contributors.
  • 2. Perry Anderson, “On the Concatenation in the Arab World,” New Left Review 68 (March-April 2011).
  • 3. Mohamed Hamama and Shady Zalat, “Wikileaks: Saudi Arabia and Azhar on the ‘Shia Encroachment’ in Egypt,” Mada Masr, July 9, 2015, /politics/wikileaks-saudi-arabia-and-azhar-shia-encroachment-egypt; Mostafa Mohie and Hossam Bahgat, “Exclusive Wikileaks Cables Trace Ebb and Flow of Egypt-UAE Relations,” Mada Masr, July 26, 2015, -cables-trace-ebb-and-flow-egypt-uae-relations.
  • 4. Dana Priest, Diedre Phillips, and Katy June-Friesen, “After Arab Spring, Journalism Briefly Flowered and Then Withered,” Washington Post, July 26, 2015, http://www -withered/2015/07/25/cb4c43fe-1c2a-11e5-ab92-c75ae6ab94b5_story.html.
  • 5. Ellis Goldberg, “Sinai: War in a Distant Province,” Jadaliyya, July 30, 2015, http://www; Steven A. Cook, “Egypt’s Coming Chaos,” Foreign Policy, July 3, 2015, -chaos-isis-terrorism-sisi/.
  • 6. Shadi Hamid, “Sisi’s Regime Is a Gift to the Islamic State,” Foreign Policy, August 6, 2015,
  • 7. Robert Fisk, “What a Choice for Egypt—A Megalomaniac President or the Madness of ISIS,” Independent, July 20, 2015, -choice-for-egypt—a-megalomaniac-president-or-the-madness-of-isis-10400354.html; Asef Bayat, Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East, 2nd ed. (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013).
  • 8. Abdelrahman Ayyash, “The Brotherhood’s Post-pacifist Approach,” Sada, July 9, 2015,
  • 9. Abdel-Fattah Barayez, “More than Money on Their Minds: The Generals and the Economy in Egypt Revisited,” Jadaliyya, July 2, 2015, /more-than-money-on-their-minds_the-generals-and-th; Safiaa Mounir, “Critics Say Suez Canal Project Falls Short of Expectations,” al-Monitor, July 30, 2015, /pulse/originals/2015/07/egypt-suez-canal-corridor-project-development.html#.
  • 10. Marc Lynch, “Obama’s ‘Arab Spring’?,” Foreign Policy, January 6, 2011, http:// Some scholars, such as Joseph Massad, disparage these terms as a form of Western imperialism: Joseph Massad, “The ‘Arab Spring’ and Other American Seasons,” Al Jazeera, August 29, 2012, /opinion/2012/08/201282972539153865.html.
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