Neurological Regeneration

Stem Cell Therapy in Neurological and Neurodegenerative DiseaseIntroductionTypes of Stem CellsEmbryonic Stem CellsInduced Pluripotent Stem CellsTissue-Specific Stem CellsStem Cell Therapy for Neurological DiseasesAlzheimer’s DiseaseParkinson’s DiseaseHuntington’s DiseaseCancerConclusionReferencesStem Cell Therapy in Traumatic Brain InjuryIntroductionNeuropathology of Traumatic Brain InjuryPrimary Injury After Traumatic Brain InjurySecondary Injury After Traumatic Brain InjuryCurrent Pharmacotherapy for Traumatic Brain InjuryStem Cell Therapy in Traumatic Brain InjuryTransplantation of Exogenous Stem Cells in Traumatic Brain InjuryStimulation of Endogenous Neural Precursor Cells in Traumatic Brain InjuryBench to Bedside Translation of Stem Cell Therapy in Traumatic Brain InjuryConclusionReferencesStem Cells in Alzheimer’s Disease TherapyIntroductionPathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease and Drug TreatmentAnimal Models in AD Therapy with Stem CellsStem Cells as a Model to Study ADThe Use of Stem Cells in AD TherapyConclusionReferencesStem Cell-Based Approaches for Treatment of GlioblastomaIntroductionGlioblastomaEpidemiologyGenetic BackgroundCurrent Treatment Options for GlioblastomaStandard of CareMolecular Treatment StrategiesLimitations of Available TreatmentsApplication of Stem Cells to Glioblastoma TherapyRationale for Stem Cell-Based TherapiesApplication of Stem Cells for Treatment of GlioblastomaImmunotoxinsSuicide Gene FusionOncolytic VirusesmiRNAsFuture DirectionsLimitations and Potential SolutionsEthical ConcernsConcluding RemarksReferencesStem Cell-Based Therapies for Parkinson’s DiseaseIntroductionGrafts of Human Fetal Ventral Mesencephalic TissueStem Cell Properties and Requirements for Their Application in CRT for PDMultipotent Stem CellsHuman Neural Stem CellsHuman Mesenchymal Stem CellsHuman Pluripotent Stem CellsHuman Embryonic Stem CellsHuman Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem CellsHuman Induced Pluripotent Stem CellsConclusions and Future DirectionsReferencesMesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic EncephalopathyIntroductionMesenchymal Stromal CellsThe Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Preclinical Animal Models of Neonatal Hypoxia-IschemiaMesenchymal Stromal Cells from Adult TissuesMesenchymal Stromal Cells from Neonatal TissuesMechanisms of Action of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell- Based Therapies in Animal Models of Neonatal Hypoxia-IschemiaImmunomodulatory and Neuroprotective Actions of Mesenchymal Stromal CellsMesenchymal Stromal Cells and NeuroplasticityRoutes of Administration, Cell Doses and Therapeutic Time-WindowFuture DirectionsUnderstanding the Role of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell- Derived Extracellular VesiclesCombining Cell-Based Therapies with HypothermiaConclusionReferencesStem Cell Therapy for AutismIntroductionASD: Immune DiseasesStem Cell Therapy for AutismPreclinical TrialsClinical TrialsBone Marrow Stem CellsUmbilical Cord and Umbilical Cord Blood Stem CellsFetal Stem CellsThe FutureImmune Modulation (Immunomodulation)Immune CorrectionImmune Replacement/Gene CorrectionConclusionReferencesStem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord InjuryIntroductionNeuropathology of Spinal Cord InjuryPrimary Injury After Traumatic Spinal Cord InjurySecondary Injury After Traumatic Spinal Cord InjuryCurrent Pharmacotherapy for Spinal Cord InjuryStem Cell Therapy in Spinal Cord InjuryTransplantation of Exogenous Stem Cells for the Treatment of Spinal Cord InjuryStimulation of Endogenous Neural Precursor Cells in Spinal Cord InjuryClinical Translation of Stem Cell Therapy in Spinal Cord InjuryConclusionReferencesStem Cell Clinical Trials for Multiple Sclerosis: The Past, Present and FutureIntroductionBackgroundHistoryMotivationStem Cell Therapy for MSThe Potential of Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) for MSThe Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) in MSThe Future of Stem Cell TherapyConclusionReferencesStem Cell Trials for Retinal Disease: An UpdateIntroductionCell of InterestRPE CellsCNS ProgenitorsForebrain ProgenitorsRetinal ProgenitorsNon-CNS CellsMechanism of ActionDisease TargetMethod of DeliveryUpdate on Clinical TrialsPhase 2b/EfficacyPhase 1/2a Dose EscalationPhase 1Non-CNS Cell TypesConclusionReferencesStem Cells in the Management of Tympanic Membrane Perforation: An UpdateIntroductionManagement Modalities for Tympanic Membrane PerforationsScaffolding MaterialCalcium AlginateSilkChitosanUse of Biomolecules in the Management of Tympanic Membrane RepairBasic Fibroblast Growth Factors (bFGF)Hyaluronic AcidPlatelets Derived Growth factors (PDGF)Epidermal Growth Factors (EGF) and PentoxifyllineStem CellsConclusionReferencesStem Cell Therapy for Retinal Disease Treatment: An UpdateIntroductionGoals of Stem Cell Therapy: Rescue and/or ReplacementRPE and PRs from Stem CellsExperimental Studies and ChallengesStem Cells for Human TransplantationCell DeliveryTransplant Survival, Differentiation, and IntegrationImmune ResponseTumor FormationConclusionReferencesStem Cell Applications in Corneal Regeneration and Wound RepairIntroduction: The Human CorneaDevelopmentAnatomyHistologyEpitheliumStromaEndotheliumPhysiologyStem Cells in the CorneaLimbal Epithelial Stem CellsMesenchymal Stem Cells in the StromaEndothelial Stem CellsCharacterization of Corneal Stem CellsCharacterizing Limbal Epithelial Stem CellsCharacterizing Mesenchymal Stem CellsCharacterizing Corneal Endothelial Stem CellsResponses to Injury and the Role of Stem Cells in Corneal RepairEpithelial RepairLimbal Epithelial Stem Cell DeficiencyStromal RepairRole of MSCs in Stromal Wound HealingMSCs Modulate Corneal AngiogenesisMSCs Are Effective in Reversing Ongoing Graft Versus Host DiseasePotential Application of MSCs in Corneal Epithelial RepairEndothelial RepairTraditional Strategies for Corneal ReconstructionOcular Surface Reconstruction in Limbal Stem Cell DeficiencyTransplantation Options for the Corneal StromaCorneal Endothelial TransplantationTissue Engineering for Corneal ReconstructionCell-Based Approach to Tissue EngineeringEpithelial Tissue EngineeringCorneal Endothelial RegenerationScaffold-Based Approach: Stromal Tissue EngineeringConclusionReferences
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