Knowledge Gaps, Future Challenges and Mitigation Strategies

Knowledge Gaps

Light pollution has only recently been acknowledged as a threat to biodiversity (Hölker et al. 2010b), and there are still many unknowns about the interactions between bat species and artificial lighting sources (Hölker et al. 2010a). Most studies have focused on specific ecological behaviours such as foraging (Rydell 1992; Blake et al. 1994), predator–prey interactions, particularly with moths (Rydell et al. 1995; Svensson and Rydell 1998), commuting routes (Stone et al. 2009, 2012) and roost emergence (Downs et al. 2003). No long-term studies have been carried out to determine whether any of these behavioural changes have fitness consequences (Beier 2006; Stone et al. 2012). The only indication of potential population-level responses has been shown in Hungary on Myotis species, where juveniles roosting in illuminated buildings had a lower body mass than their counterparts in unlit roosts (Boldogh et al. 2007). However, this study did not establish whether a lower body mass in these juveniles reduced their survival rate after hibernation. It is particularly important to understand higher level responses for bat species because they have low fecundity rates, usually only producing one pup per year (Dietz et al. 2009), and so populations are sensitive to sudden changes (Stone et al. 2012).

Further studies are needed to address the impact of artificial lighting at the community level (Davies et al. 2012). The current literature highlights that artificial lighting causes species-specific responses (Rydell 1992; Stone et al. 2009, 2012; Jung and Kalko 2010), which could cause light-tolerant species to exclude light-averse species (Polak et al. 2011; Stone et al. 2012). Such competitive interactions have been proposed as the driving force behind changes in bat populations in Switzerland, where decreases in photosensitive R. hipposideros have been linked to increases in light-tolerant P. pipistrellus (Stutz and Haffner 1984; Arlettaz et al. 2000). It is believed that by avoiding street lights, R. hipposideros are foregoing profitable prey sources exploited by P. pipistrellus (Arlettaz et al. 1999, 2000).

So far research has focussed largely on insectivorous bats in temperate zones. Further research in tropical ecosystems is needed. For example, the forested areas of South-east Asia contain a high diversity and abundance of horseshoe bat species that are likely to be negatively affected by light pollution, and the impact of light pollution on pollination and seed dispersal in the tropics and subtropics needs further investigation.

Research on the impacts of different light spectra in emerging technologies on bat activity and reproduction will be valuable; this is currently being investigated in the Netherlands as part of a large-scale investigation exposing a wide range of taxa to white, red and green LED lighting (see With the current plans to switch to broader spectrum lighting sources, it is important to understand more about the spectral sensitivities of bats (Davies et al. 2012, 2013), especially given the recent findings on opsin genes highlighted above. Determining if there are spectral and intensity thresholds for different species would aid mitigation strategies and improve conservation initiatives (Stone et al. 2012; Gaston et al. 2013).

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