Language Policy Beyond the State

Introductory Chapter: Questioning BordersIntroductionLanguage, Policy & the StateLanguage Policies Beyond the State?Decentering the State: Globalization, Migration, RegionalismLanguage-Policy Agents Beyond the State?Why Focus on Estonia in Language Policy Research?Estonia’s Borderland ExistenceEstonia’s DynamismNewly Emerging Speech CommunitiesSpatial and Temporal Reconsiderations: An Overview of the VolumeSpaceTimeReferencesI Spatial Reconsiderations: State Decentered by Migration and GlobalizationPriming Language Political Issues as Issues of State Security: A Corpus-Assisted Discourse Analysis of Language Ideological Debates in Estonian Media Before and After the Ukrainian CrisisIntroductionRussian-Speaking Minority and MediaTheoretical and Methodological ConsiderationsState Security and Language PlanningCorpus-Assisted Discourse StudiesDiscourse Analysis of Language Ideological DebatesCorpus-Assisted Analysis of Language Ideological Debates on the Delfi News Portal, August 2013 - February 2015Building the CorporaElectoral Debates and PrimingCorpus-Assisted Analysis of the CorporaThe Tentative Keyness of the Corpora March 2014 - February 2015Concordancing NarvaDiscussionReferencesDoing Language Policy: Teasing Out the Tensions for Transnational Scholars in Estonian and Danish Higher EducationLanguage and Transnational Scholars in the International UniversityThe Internationalization of HE in Two Contexts: Theory, Method and AnalysisLanguage and Strategy Policy Documents at the University of Tartu and at the University of CopenhagenTransnational Scholars’ Language PracticesDiscussion and ConclusionsReferencesSwedishization or Internationalization? Negotiating the Common Language and Culture in a Swedish-Baltic Financial InstitutionIntroductionMethodological ChallengesAsking the Right QuestionsNexus Analysis as a Tool for Studying Complex Social PhenomenaThe Case Study of the Swedish-Baltic Financial Institution NObtaining the Necessary DataNavigating the Cycles of Discourse in Interaction Order and Historical BodiesTracing the Cycles FurtherDiscussion and Conclusion - Nexus Analysis of Hidden Language ManagementReferencesEmerging Language Political Agency Among Estonian Native Speakers in FinlandIntroduction: The Research AgendaTheoretical and Methodological Considerations, and DataThe Multilingual Situation and Legal Framework in Finland in BriefEstonian-Speakers in Finland: From Sporadic Emigres to the Second- Largest Immigrant GroupEstonian in Day-Care and Compulsory Education Sites in HelsinkiEstonian-Language Day-Care Initiatives and Language Ideologies in Connection with Day-Care in EstonianLanguage Practices and Management in a School with an Estonian-Finnish Bilingual ProgramDiscussion and ConclusionReferencesParental Attitudes and Family Conversational Strategies Shaping the Family Language Policies of Two Estonian-Finnish FamiliesIntroductionTheoretical Background of FLP in Bilingual Estonian-Finnish FamiliesStudying Family Language PolicyStudies Concerning Conversational Strategies, Code-Switching, and AttitudesOPOL: Model or Strategy?Estonians in Finland, Finns in EstoniaResearch MethodData CollectionThe SettingInterviews with the ParentsRecordings of the Conversations with the Children and Their FamiliesInterviews at the Age of 10-11Informant Children and FamiliesChild 2 (CHI2) and His Family (Family2)FindingsConclusionReferencesYoung Swedish-Estonian Returnees to Estonia: Reflections on Family Language Policy and a Multilingual UpbringingIntroductionFLP and Children’s Retrospective ViewSwedish-Estonians, Estonian Language and IdentityData Collection and InformantsInterviewsInformantsStrategiesNarrative SummariesMl - A Diasporic, Multilingual IdentityM2 - Dislike for Language MixingF1 - Language as a (Creative) ToolF2 - Proud to Be an Estonian(-Speaker)DiscussionPolicy Creation and ImplementationPlace, Purity and MultilingualismConclusionsReferencesII Temporal Reconsiderations: State Decentered by Enduring Connections and New Patterns Negotiating a Place for German in Estonia Contemporary Functions, Attitudes and PoliciesIntroduction: Past Contexts of German in Estonia and Theoretical and Methodological AgendaGerman Language Skills and Attitudes Towards German in EstoniaPractices and Policies: A “Taking Up” of the Historical Role of GermanPolicies Influencing the Role of German as an L1 in Estonia TodayExterior Language Policies by Germany and AustriaGerman Language Policies in Business and TourismBeliefs, Policies and Practices in the Educational SectorDiscussion and ConclusionReferencesFrom Literary Languages to Dialectal Varieties to Microlanguages?: Historical Perspectives on Language Policy Towards South Estonian and LatgalianIntroductionKey Concepts for Navigating Between Language, ‘a Language’, and DialectThe Divergent Development of South Estonian and Latgalian as Literary LanguagesThe Protracted Emergence of Literary Varieties in the Northern Baltic RegionOther Written Languages and Varieties‘One Plus One Equals One’: The Creation of Standardised National LanguagesSelection of NormCreating National Languages: Codification, Elaboration and AcceptanceFraming South Estonian and Latgalian as ‘Varieties’ of Estonian and LatvianEstonian 'Regional Varieties’ and 'Dialects’A ‘Historic Variant’ of LatvianThe Revitalisation of South Estonian and Latgalian: Renewed Divergence and Convergence?ConclusionReferencesPolicy Drag & Resiliency: Teachers’ Response to Voluntary Language Policy in Southeastern EstoniaIntroductionResiliencyContextMethodsFindings & DiscussionTeachers’ Linguistic ResiliencyTeachers’ Professional ResiliencyConclusionsReferencesOfficial Language Policy as a Factor in Using Receptive Multilingualism Among Members of an Estonian and a Finnish Student OrganizationIntroductionFriendship Alliances Between Estonian and Finnish Student OrganizationsReceptive Multilingualism: Language Policies and Other DeterminantsData and MethodsFactors Affecting the Language Choices: Interplay Between the Ideological and PracticalDiscrepancy Between the Official Policy and How It Was InterpretedDiscrepancy Between the Perceived Policy and Reported and Actual PracticesCompeting Ideologies of the “Ideal” and “Practical”Receptive Multilingualism as a Group PhenomenonConclusions and DiscussionReferencesLanguage as an Object of National Passion: Reflections from EstoniaIntroductionConceptualizing the Affective Grounds for Language PolicyLinguistic Culture and Nation-Building in EstoniaThe Song Celebration as Affective PracticeDiscussion and ConclusionsReferencesEpilogue
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