It is not possible to summarize the features of the “reversible dementias” in a common set because they represent a multiplicity of heterogeneous illnesses, characterized by distinct clinical presentation, neuropsychiatric manifestations, diagnostic workup, follow-up, treatment, and prognosis. Therefore, a detailed description of the diseases that may either cause or mimic dementia and which are potentially ameliorated upon specific treatment is carried out, in order to provide a broad awareness and ensure a high level of clinical suspicion to presume and investigate some causes of cognitive impairment.
Potentially Reversible Dementias
Structural Lesions and Neurosurgical Conditions
The diagnosis of structural and neurosurgical causes of potentially reversible cognitive impairment is relatively simplified by the presence of abnormalities in brain imaging requested during the investigation of the cognitive decline. However, some neuroimaging changes may not be related to the cognitive manifestations, inducing false-positive results that may eventually lead to more burdensome tests and disproportionate treatments. A reliable clinical-imaging correlation should always therefore be accomplished.