Pulmonary Disorders

Patients with chronic lung disease, such as chronic obstructive respiratory disease, are thought to be at an increased risk of cognitive decline. This may be a consequence of overlapping risk factors for cognitive impairment in general and chronic lung disease populations (e.g., depression, cerebrovascular disease, sleep disorders, drugs) and/or the direct product of respiratory problems (such as hypoxemia and hypercapnia). Moreover, it has been recognized some independent association between lung function and cognitive performance. This offers a significant therapeutic focus for reversing or halting cognitive decline in this population [89].

Cardiac Disorders

Heart failure has been associated with cognitive dysfunction, revealed as an acute confusional status precipitated in the setting of decompensated heart failure or chronic mild cognitive impairment or dementia in patients with stable heart failure.

The “cardiogenic dementia” can be a result of shared risk factors and/or diverse forms of brain lesion secondary to heart problems, such as acute stroke events or a more chronic and diffuse ischemia due to cerebral perfusion and rheological abnormalities. Certain neurohormonal and humoral factors play a role in the regulation of cerebral perfusion, and some of which are potentially influenced by treatments, providing a chance for optimized heart failure therapy to reverse these abnormalities and, eventually, benefit cognitive function [90].

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