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Other bacterial genera

A variety of other bacterial genera appear to be represented in these products, many of which are not identified to the species level. These include Achromobacter, Actinobacter, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodobacter and Lactobacillus. Of these, Lactobacillus is perhaps the best known, various species of which have been used as probiotics and in food production, and are generally considered non-pathogenic (Wassenaar and Klein, 2008). Achromobacter species are commonly found in fresh water and marine environments and are considered, among other things, as “beneficial bacteria” for use in aquaculture operations (Zhou et al., 2009). Various literature was found describing how species of some of these genera have been found to degrade various xenobiotic compounds (for example, see Perez-Pantoja et al., 2009). Other examples of this include various species of Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter and Rhodopseudomonas that have been found to degrade textile azo dyes (Xingzu et al. 2008; Pearce et al., 2003).

Table 9.1. Micro-organisms used in cleaning products

Product/process

Use

Micro-organisms in formulation

Number of micro-organisms in formulation

Information source/website

Liquid cleaner

Improve surface cleaning

Primarily Bacillus subtilis. Other potential organisms: Pseudomonas, Arthrobader, Enterobader, Citrobader and Corynebader

1x106- 1x109 /ml

Sybron Chemical Industries WIPO: EP0245560

Detergent

Soap

Lactic acid bacteria, yeast and photosynthetic bacteria

Yeast: 1x105/ml Lactic acid bacteria: 1.5x105/ml

EM Res Organization Inc. WIPO: EP1717301

Detackifying organic solvent

Degradation of water-borne paint containing high levels of organic solvent

Primarily Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens.

Other organisms used include: Bacillus sp., Citrobarobader sp., Aeromonas sp., Shewanella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Corynebaderium sp., Rhodococcus sp. or a mixture thereof.

Not provided

Atotech Deutschland GMBHDEUTSCHLAND GMBH WIPO: W02008094872

Cleaning solution

Removal of hydrocarbons

Achromobader, Adinobader, Alcaligenes, Arthrobader, Bacillus, Flavobaderium and Pseudomonas species, and mixtures thereof. Preferred are those naturally occurring of the genus Bacillus, particularly 6. subtilis, B. licheniformis and 6. polymyxa

Not provided

Earth Alive Resources Inc. WIPO: W02002033031

Cleaning agent

Enhance fermentation in soap production process

Lactobacillus group, yeast group and photosynthetic bacterium group

Not provided

EM Research Organization WIPO: KR1020070003956

Stable antimicrobial composition including spores, bacteria, fungi and/or enzymes

Various cleaning applications

Suitable spores (bacterial or fungal), vegetative bacteria, fungi or enzymes from Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Arthrobader, Enterobader, Citrobader, Corynebader, Nitrobader species, mixtures thereof or the like; Acinetobader, Aspergillus, Azospirillum, Burkholderia, Ceriporiopsis, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Paenebacillus, Paracoccus, Rhodococcus, Syphingomonas, Streptococcus, Thiobacillus, Trichoderma, Xanthomonas, Ladobacillus, Nitrosomonas, Alcaligenes, Klebsiella species, mixtures thereof or the like.

1x103 — 1x109 cfu/ml

Ecolab USA Inc.

USPTO: 8211849 20110207649

Composition comprising organic matter and micro-organisms

Deodorizer, degreaser, mould inhibitor

Phototrophic bacteria belonging to: Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodobader, Rhodospirillum, Chromatium and Chlorobiumi lactic acid bacteria belonging to: Ladobacillus, Propionibacterium, Pediococcus and Streptococcus and yeasts: Saccharomyces and Candida

Not provided

USPTO: 20080085546

Probiotic micro-organism for the reduction of manure odour

Odour control

Micro-organisms belonging to the genus Ladobacillus or yeast belonging to the genera Cryptococcus, Kluyveromyces, Candida or Metschnikowia

Yeast content: 1.4 x 10s cfu Ladobacillus content:

5.4 x 109 cfu

OrganoBalance GmbH USPTO: 20110117068

Multi-action drain cleaning composition and method

Drain cleaning

Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051, ATCC 14415 and ATCC 35946, Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6598 and ATCC 1194, and Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 12060

Not provided

Organica Biotech USPTO: 20090263884

Table 9.1. Micro-organisms used in cleaning products (cont.)

Product/process

Use

Micro-organisms in formulation

Number of micro-organisms in formulation

Information source/website

Enz-Odor® 4, Enz-Odor® 4-2XFF, Nu-Bind 1* etc

Odour control agents

Liquid products containing exclusively spore-forming Bacillus species with preservatives, with or without additional ingredients

On average 2 x 109 cfu / g

Aiken MurrarvCora: www.alken- murrav.com/Odorindex.html: United States

EM-1 microbial inoculant

Aquarium/fish pond treatment

Rhodopseudomonas palustris and other unidentified phototropic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast

Not provided

Emerald Earth:

www.emearth.com/NewFiles/Aauariu ms.html: United States

Clear-Flo (various products)

Surface cleaners

Bacillus subtilis strains

Various cones.; link provides extensive list of products

Aiken MurrarvCora: www.alken- murrav.com/Cleaninalndex.html: United States

Drainbo

Drain cleaner

Several strains of Bacillus

Not provided

Drainbo The Natural Solution: www.drainbo.com/news.html: United States

Bio Source

Zymo Super Concentrated Drain Cleaner, Green Bin Deodorizer

Drain cleaner and deodorizer

Bacillus cultures and substrains

Not provided

BioSource Solutions Inc.: www.biosourcesolutionsinc.com/site/ products: Canada

Various cleaning products

Household drain cleaners and degreasers, septic tank additives and general cleaning products

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 31480, 700370 and 700371

Not provided

www.chemicalsubstanceschimiaues. ac.ca/fact-fait/alance- bref/pseudomonas-ena.php: Canada

EcoWorks (various cleaning products)

Washroom cleaner, multi-surface cleaner, odour eliminator

Bacillus strains

5.25 x 107 /ml, equivalent to 200 billion/5 litres

www.eco-works.co.uk/probiotic-

cleanina-liauids.html:

United Kingdom

BioPure

Household cleaner

Lactobacillus cultures

Not provided

Pure Alternatives:

www.ourealternatives. net/biooure. ht ml; Australia

EM-1 septic treatment

Septic tank additives/ treatment

Mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodopseudomonas palustris

1 million cfu/ml

Teraaanix: www.teraaanix.com/32oz- EM-1 -Seotic-T reatment-o/1022.htm: United States

Sporyzme BCC

Degrade organic waste and eliminate associate odours

Blend of Bacillus spores

5.0 x 1010cfu/gm

NovoZymes:

www. waterauru. net.au/pdfs/Sporzvm e%20BCC%20PDS-1.odf:

United States

Sources: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), www.wipo.int/portal/index.html.en; United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPO), www.uspto.gov.

BIOSAFETY AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL USES OF MICRO-ORGANISMS: CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS О OECD 2015

Fungal species

Some of the cleaning products found in the literature were declared to contain Saccharomyces and Candida species. It is common knowledge that a number of Saccharomyces species (such as S. cerevisiae) have a long history of safe use in the baking, brewing and winemaking industries. In recent years it has also been recognised that a number of yeast species, including some belonging to Saccharomyces and Candida, have the potential to be effectively used in the biodegradation of a variety of hazardous chemicals (Xiuyan et al., 2011; Harms et al., 2011).

 
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