In addition to direct biological effects of a GMM, including their potential for HGT, hazards may also be caused by indirect effects. Indirect effects may include consequences of the replacement of an existing technology by utilising one linked to the use of a GMM. The assessment of indirect effects can be complex and may require interdisciplinary approaches, including modelling to making predictions from small-scale experiences and contained uses to broader non-contained applications. This effort incorporated into a risk assessment of a GMM, as described above, is clearly rewarding if GMM technologies, as presented in this volume, are developed to improve the efficiency and environmental friendliness compared to current applications.
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