Islam and the making of the nation: Kartosuwiryo and Political Islam in 20th Century Indonesia

Preface New perspectives on political Islam in twentieth- century IndonesiaSCHOLARLY APPROACHES TO ISLAM AND POLITICSKARTOSUWIRYO’S MOTIVESABOUT THIS BOOKSTRUCTURE OF THE BOOKA NOTE ON THE SOURCESPlanting the seeds Java, the nationalist movement and Kartosuwiryo in the 1920sFrom desa to kota: a nationalist leader in the makingColonial perspectivesSurabayaBataviaWest JavaMalangbongIslam, authority and leadership in the PrianganDEVELOPING AN ISLAMIC NATIONALIST IDEOLOGYCONCLUDING REMARKSPolitical Islam in changing times Sarekat Islam and Masyumi under the Dutch and Japanese occupations (1930-1945)KARTOSUWIRYO: A RISING STAR?REDEFINING PARTAI SAREKAT ISLAM INDONESIA’S PRIORITIESPan-Islamism and non-cooperationThe Islamic movement and secular nationalismTHE CONSEQUENCES OF NON-COOPERATIONTHE BROSOER SIKAP HIDJRAH PSII AND DAFTAR OESAHA HIDJRAHREFLECTING ON THE ‘MIDDLE EAST’ FACTORKARTOSUWIRYO’S WEAKENING SUPPORT AND WITHDRAWAL FROM POLITICSTHE RISE OF SECULAR NATIONALISMCONCLUDING REMARKSReligious resistance and secular politics Laying the foundations of the Indonesian state (1945-1947)Shifting centres of power: Tokyo, Jakarta, London, the hagueMASYUMl’S ISLAMIZATION OF THE IDEOLOGICAL STRUGGLEKartosuwiryo’s Haloean politik IslamTROOP POLARIZATION IN WEST JAVA: REPUBLICAN ARMY AND ISLAMIC MILITIAS FROM THE BRITISH LANDING TO THE RENVILLE AGREEMENTSeeking a structureThe Linggadjati Agreement and the Dutch invasion: Implications for national politicsConsequences for West JavaThe Limbangan incident and the nature of the antagonism among Islamic, Republican and Dutch troopsWest Java on the eve of the Renville AgreementIDEOLOGICAL RADICALIZATION! CALLING FOR HOLY WARKartosuwiryo’s Perang sabilKartosuwiryo’s ‘holy war’Government reception of Masyumi’s and Kartosuwiryo’s calls for a jihadCONCLUDING REMARKSBuilding the Islamic state From ideal to reality (1947-1949)GROUNDWORK (NOVEMBER 1947-MAY 1948)Imagining the Islamic state (November 1947-January 1948)Laying the foundations of the Islamic state february-march 1948)Early reactions (March-May 1948)Initial expansion (March-May 1948)A step closer to establishing the islamic state (may-december 1948)Institutional and territorial consolidationStructuring the Islamic StateReaching out: Promoting the common goalGrowing apart (December 1948-AuGusT 1949)Tentara Islam Indonesia and the Siliwangi in West Java: an uneasy cohabitation (December 1948-February 1949)and an easy divorce (February-March 1949)Opposing reactions: Clashing military and political interests (April-August 1949)DECLARING AN ISLAMIC STATE IN ‘OCCUPIED’ WEST JAVA (AUGUST 1949)The Proclamation of the Negara Islam IndonesiaThe NII’s criminal codeInitial attempts to reconciliation (august-october 1949)CONCLUDING REMARKSThe ‘War of the Roses’ The Islamic state and the Pancasila Republic (1949-1962)Shifting approaches: between negotiation AND CONDEMNATION (1949-1954)The ‘Commission for the solution to the Darul Islam problem’‘Silently resorting to great military force’The duty to restore peaceThe unitary state: ‘A modern form of colonialism’A new round of negotiationsSoekiman’s ‘more resolute way’Soekarno’s Pancasila national state and its opponents‘Final operations ’ against the enemies of the stateTHE DEMISE OF MASYUMI AND DARUL ISLAM (1955-1962)Political defeatDarul Islam and the regional rebellionsOPERATION ‘ANNIHILATE’CONCLUDING REMARKSFrom rebellion to martyrdom?Speculations and the rhetoric of betrayal (1948-1950)Darul Islam and communismTheDI: A scheme of ‘(D)utch (I)nfiltration’MISSING IDEOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO KARTOSUWIRYO’S NilBUILDING THE IMAGE OF A ‘STERILE REBEL’Condemnation: Mysticism, violence and defeatReconciliation: keep your friends close, but your enemies closerGlorificationComparing the Codes: Crimes and punishmentsBEYOND CONDEMNATION AND GLORIFICATIONConcluding remarksBibliography
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