the state and local governments exist in parallel and are thus coequal.

  • 2. Jesse L. Richardson, Jr., Meghan Zimmerman Gough, and Robert Puentes, Is Home Rule the Answer? Clarifying the Influence of Dillon's Rule on Growth Management, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, 2003.
  • 3. As an example of the anti-zoning position, both for legal and for other reasons, see Jack C. Harris and William Douglas Moore, "Debunking the Mythology of Zoning," Real Estate Review, vol. 13, no. 4, winter 1984, pp. 94-97.
  • 4. For an account of the legal issues involved in taking, see Daniel R. Mandelker, Land Use Law, The Michie Co., Charlottesville, VA, 1982.
  • 5. For a history of the evolution of zoning, see Mel Scott, American City Planning Since 1890, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1971, chs 2 and 3.
  • 6. See Charles F. Flory, "Shaping the Skyscrapers of Manhattan," Real Estate Review, vol. 13, no. 2, summer 1983, pp. 48-53.
  • 7. Jerome S. Kayden, "Celebrating How the Supreme Court's Preservation of Grand Central Terminal Helped Preserve Planning Nationwide," Planning, June 2003, pp. 20-23.
  • 8. For the complete text of Measure 37, go to guide/meas/m37_text.html.
  • 9. The easiest way to find information on any of the above cases is to enter the case name in a search engine or go to SCOTUSblog. com (SCOTUS: Supreme Court of the U.S.).
  • 10. National Land and Investment Company v. Kohn, 215, A. 2d 597 (Pa. 1965).
  • 11. See the website of the National Conference of State Legislatures at grams/natres/emindomainleg06.htm.
  • 12. Code of Virginia, 1950 (as amended), Title 15.1, ch. 11.
  • 13. A plat is a map or diagram showing a parcel of land divided into building lots.
  • 14. By "local governments" is meant all municipal and county governments and also school and other districts.
  • 15. The term elastic in this usage means that percentage increases in tax revenues exceed percentage increases in income.
  • 16. For a very quick, readable summary of the Public Choice view, see "The Public Choice Revolution," James Gwartney and Richard Wagner, The Intercollegiate Review, spring 1988, pp. 17-26. For more extensive treatments, see other works by these two authors as well as works by Gordon Tullock and James Buchanan.
  • 17. Paul Krugman, End This Recession Now, W.W. Norton, New York, 2012.


Burns, James M., Peltason, J.W., and Cronin, Thomas E., Government by the People, 6th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1996. Fischel, William A., The Economics of Land Use Regulation, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, MA, 2015.

Mandelker, Daniel R., Land Use Law, The Michie Co., Charlottesville, VA, 1982.

Meck, Stuart, Wack, Paul, and Zimet, Michelle J., "Zoning and Subdivision Regulations," in The Practice of Local Government Planning, 3rd ed., International City Management Association, Washington, DC, 2000, pp. 343-374.

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