Evaluation occurs at many levels, ranging from meeting technical demands to the ability to gain public acceptance. It is the time at which the preliminary plans generated in the synthesis phase are compared with the original goals and problem definitions.
After the design proposals are complete, it is essential that they be evaluated in light of the original problem or issue they were intended to address. One of the more complicated tasks associated with evaluation is determining what criteria should be employed. There are two basic questions: (1) how well the solutions fit the problem, and (2) how readily the proposals can be implemented. The task is further complicated by the fact that cities are dynamic and that their problems are constantly changing.
During implementation, the strategy for actual financing and construction is devised. Detailed phasing studies and tools such as zoning ordinances are called into play to realize the project.
Once an urban design plan is developed, the principal tools through which it is implemented are land-use controls and capital expenditures. The land-use controls available to the urban designer include not only the traditional, or Euclidean, zoning ordinance, but also a variety of modern techniques described in Chapter 9.
Capital expenditures shape the pattern of land development, as noted earlier, by altering land values through the provision of access and utilities. When there is public participation in a project, capital expenditures combined with the power of eminent domain may be used to assemble the land for the project.