- 1. The term spent in this usage also includes the term transferred. A great deal of the one- third of GNP "spent" by government in the United States is simply money like Social Security payments that are transferred to individuals and then spent by the individuals. In that sense the figures on government's share of the GNP may exaggerate the role of government in the economy.
- 2. J. Barry Cullingworth, The Political Culture of Planning, Routledge, London, 1993, p. 197.
- 3. Just before the start of World War II, Great Britain imported about four-fifths of all the food that it consumed. During the war, the heavy dependence on food brought in by ship was a major problem, which focused attention on the desirability of preserving as much of the nation's agricultural potential as possible.
- 4. For a detailed account of the evolution of British planning in the post-World War II period, see Peter Hall, Urban and Regional Planning, 3rd edn, Routledge, London, 1992, ch. 4. See also J. Barry Cullingworth and Vincent Nadin, Town and Country Planning in Britain, Routledge, London, 11th edn, 1994, and earlier editions, ch. 1.
- 5. Hall, Urban and Regional Planning, p. 81.
- 6. Pierre Merlin, New Towns, Regional Planning and Development, Methuen and Co., London, 1971.
- 7. This idea somewhat resembles the thinking of the late nineteenth-century American writer on economic and social issues, Henry George. He argued that increases in land value generally occurred because of forces with which the property owner had little connection and that these increases in value, which were not earned by the property owner, should be taxed away. He thus argued for a tax system that relied entirely on the value of land.
- 8. The industrial revolution is generally considered to have been well underway in Great Britain by the last decades of the eighteenth century, about 1760 to 1800 or 1780 to 1800. Germany did not reach a comparable stage until at least the middle of the nineteenth century, and Scandinavia the end of the nineteenth century. For
estimates of the dates of the so-called stage of economic takeoff in various countries, see W.W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1971.
- 9. That changed in subsequent years, and the British growth rate was higher than that on the continent, a fact the Conservatives were quick to attribute to the pro-market policies of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, policies generally continued under the Labour government of Tony Blair.
- 10. Cullingworth and Nadin, Town and Country, pp. 205-213.
- 11. The basic provisions of the act are explained in "A Plain English Guide to the Localism Act," available on line at www.gov.uk/ government/uploads/system. It may also be found by simply googling the title.
- 12. "An Englishman's Home," The Economist, January 11, 2014, p. 12.
- 13. Hall, Urban and Regional Planning, p. 168.
- 14. The term growth pole originated with the French economic geographer Francois Per- roux. Although he used it to describe an industrial sector that acted as the agent for promoting national industrial development (i.e., as the leading industrial sector, rather than a particular place), it quickly became used in the geographic sense. The term, in its geographic sense, was popularized in the United States by the regional economist Niles Hansen.
- 15. Hall, Urban and Regional Planning, p. 172.
- 16. France's high-speed passenger rail system, the Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV), literally "Train with Great Speed," is very heavily subsidized. It provides a level of passenger service that is unmatched in the United States; in fact, the French passenger rail system apart from the TGV is far superior to that of the United States. One reason is that the French are willing to subsidize passenger rail very heavily. The U.S. reluctance to sink large amounts of subsidy money into a modern, high-quality passenger rail system has been the object of much criticism. However, the defender of the U.S. reluctance might point out that it is not entirely capricious. U.S. population density is much lower than that of France, the land-use pattern is much more dispersed, and automobile ownership rates are higher. All of those factors tend to stack the deck against public transportation and would make U.S. subsidy costs per passenger mile much higher.
- 17. Peter Newman and Andy Thornley, Urban Planning in Europe, Routledge, London and New York, 1996, ch. 7.
- 18. Ibid., p. 163.
- 19. "France's Forgotten Suburbs," The Economist, February 23, 2013, p. 14. Numerous articles on the banlieues may be found by simply googling the word banlieue.
- 20. Newman and Thornley, Urban Planning, p. 48.
- 21. Hall, Urban and Regional Planning, pp. 197-202.
- 22. The idea that a small place may obtain some of the benefits or agglomeration economies of a nearby larger place has been termed "borrowed size" by the American planner William Alonso. See any standard text on urban economics, such as James Heilbrun, Urban Economics and Public Policy, 3rd edn, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1987.
- 23. Newman and Thornley, Urban Planning, p. 209.
- 24. Ibid., p. 208.
- 25. In the Soviet Union and in many of the satellite nations, the extremes of wealth and poverty were much smaller than was later to become the case. Housing and some other necessities of life were provided below cost and there was no unemployment. All workers were assigned to a workplace, even if there was very little for them to do there. In other words, unemployment was concealed, rather than explicit as in a capitalist society. A cynical expression for this at the time was "we pretend to work and they pretend to pay us." Although the total output of the economy was low and
the society as a whole was very poor by Western standards, there was a minimal floor under everyone.
- 26. The fertility figures come from U.S. Bureau of the Census International Data Base, available online at www.census.gov/population/ international/data/idb/. The database provides current and past population figures, projections of future populations, and present and projected population pyramids for a large number of nations. Fertility and population figures for a number of nations may also be found in the International chapter of the Statistical Abstract of the United States, also published by the Bureau of the Census.
- 27. In 2010 China's GDP measured on a purchasing power parity basis was about 67 percent that of the United States. If the current difference in growth rates continues, China will catch up the United States in GDP within less than a decade. The population of China is about 4.3 times that of the United States. Thus U.S. per capita GDP is about six-and-a-half times that of China. Purchasing power parity is used rather than the commonly used comparison based on official exchange rates because it avoids distortion caused by under- or overvalued currencies. The calculations are based on figures from the CIA World Factbook, www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-worldfactbook/.
- 28. Ian Johnson, "China's Great Uprooting— Moving 250 Million into Cities," New York Times, Asia Pacific, June 15, 2013, available at NYT.com The article contains links to other articles and a slide show.
- 29. "China Plans to Promote More Urbanization," Wall Street Journal, World, March 17, 2014, available at wsj.com.
Brenner, Neil and Keil, Roger, EDS., The Global Cities Reader, Routledge, New York, 2005.
Cullingworth, J. Barry and Nadin, Vincent, Town and Country Planning in Britain, 11th edn, Routledge, London and New York, 1994.
Hall, Peter, Urban and Regional Planning, 3rd edn, Routledge, London and New York, 1992.
Merlin, Pierre (trans. Margaret Sparks), New Towns, Regional Planning and Development, Methuen and Co., London, 1971.
Newman, Peter and Thornley, Andy, Urban Planning in Europe, Routledge, London and New York, 1996.
Silver, Christopher, Planning the Megacity: Jakarta in the Twentieth Century, Routledge, New York, 2008.