This chapter has reviewed elements of the LLF as they apply to the natural gas exploration and exploitation field of practice. Each element of the LLF has outlined various points of overview, requisite challenges, and potential research opportunities that are extant. In turn, an integrated overview and research agenda have been established for a new area. Natural gas exploration is becoming very prominent and should be approached from a human-centered design perspective. This chapter outlines how this perspective could become a reality based on the principles of knowledge as design (Perkins, 1986) and the LLF, which is highlighted in different ways throughout this volume.


  • 1. Define and describe the relationship of affordances and effectivities.
  • 2. Describe the elements within the natural gas domain that make it similar to other socialtechnical system domain.
  • 3. Briefly define the 6 elements of the LLF.
  • 4. Understand how, when, and why to use the LLF.


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