Team Mental Models

Three different types of TMM content were measured: team (how and with whom work gets done), task (what work gets done), and temporal (when work gets done). All three types were assessed using similarity ratings, one of the most popular measurement techniques (Mohammed et al., 2010). Each mental model contained a list of six dimensions that were generated through careful analysis of the task requirements, collaborative processes, and temporal dynamics involved in NeoCITIES. The six dimensions were briefly defined and arranged into a 6 x 5 grid (Hamilton et al.,

2010). Participants were asked to rate the similarity of each dimensional pair on a scale of 1 (extremely unrelated) to 5 (extremely related). Sharedness was assessed using QAP correlations (e.g., Mohammed et al., 2015).

In addition to similarity ratings, temporal TMMs were also assessed via concept mapping, another common assessment technique used in the literature (e.g., Mohammed et al., 2012). After each performance session, participants were given a list of three events and asked who should arrive to the event first, second, and third. The similarity among team member maps and the number of direct links shared in Studies 1 and 2 were assessed (Mancuso, Hamilton, et al., 2011).

Team performance was operationalized objectively through the scores generated by the NeoCITIES simulation. The overall team performance score was calculated based on an event growth formula that accounted for the number of events, severity of events, and the time taken to successfully resolve events. As such, task performance in NeoCITIES rewarded players that quickly and correctly allocated the correct number and type of resources to an event. Players received lower scores when opportunities were lost through inaction or slow and/or incorrect responses (Hellar & McNeese, 2010). In addition to the overall team performance score, NeoCITIES was also modified to provide more circumscribed performance scores for temporally- infused events, independent events, and interdependent events.

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